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Alissa C. Rhode, Lauren M. Lavelle, and David C. Berry

Clinical Scenario: ReBound is a portable shortwave diathermy unit used to heat tissues using the same principle as induction drum shortwave diathermy. It is unclear if ReBound can vigorously (4°C) heat intramuscular tissue as efficiently as other thermal agents. Clinical Question: In adults (P), is ReBound diathermy (I) compared with other thermal agents (C) effective at increasing intramuscular tissue temperature by 4°C (O)? Summary of Key Findings: (1) Three studies were included for review, all randomized crossover studies. (2) All studies agreed ReBound does not achieve vigorous (4°C) heating effects during a 30-minute treatment to the triceps surae muscle (depth = 1 and 3 cm). (3) Studies agreed that the heat generated by ReBound dissipates slower than (P < .001) or similar to pulsed shortwave diathermy at 3 cm and faster than moist hot packs (P < .001) at 1 cm. (4) One study found that intramuscular tissue temperatures increased more with ReBound (3.69°C [1.50°C]) than moist hot packs (2.82°C [0.90°C]) at superficial depths (1 cm, d = 0.70). (5) Two studies compared ReBound with MegaPulse II pulsed shortwave diathermy at a 3 cm depth. One found that the MegaPulse II increased intramuscular tissue temperature by 4.32°C (1.79°C) compared with the ReBound’s 2.31°C (0.87°C) increase (d = 1.43). The final study reported that the MegaPulse II increased triceps surae muscle temperature by 3.47°C (0.92°C) versus ReBound at 3.08°C (1.19°C) (d = 0.37). (6) The combined results are an increase of 3.81 (1.38°C) for the MegaPulse II and 2.77 (1.12°C) for ReBound (d = 0.83). Clinical Bottom Line: Results strongly indicate that the ReBound should not be used for vigorous (4°C) heating effects in the triceps surae muscle at 1 and 3 cm. Clinicians can use ReBound when traveling or instead of moist hot packs for moderate (2°C–3°C) heating effects at deep and superficial levels (1 and 3 cm) for large treatment areas with subcutaneous fat thickness <15 mm. Strength of Recommendation: Consistent level B findings indicate that ReBound does not achieve vigorous heating effects (4°C).

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Michael G. Miller, David C. Berry, Susan Bullard, and Roger Gilders

Context:

Land and aquatic plyometrics have clinical relevance for exercise, sport performance, and rehabilitation, yet study is limited comparing both.

Objective:

To compare the effects of land-based and aquatic-based plyometric-training programs on performance variables, muscle soreness, and range of motion (ROM).

Setting:

Aquatic facility and biomechanics laboratory.

Subjects:

Forty subjects randomly assigned to 3 groups: land (n = 13), water (n = 13), and control (n = 14).

Main Outcome Measures:

Performance variables, muscle soreness, and ROM were measured before and after an 8-week training period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a Bonferroni post hoc test determined significance.

Results:

ANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups with respect to plantar-flexion ROM (P < .05). Paired t test determined that the aquatic group significantly increased muscle power pretest to posttest (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Results indicate that aquatic plyometric training can be an alternative approach to enhancing performance.

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David C. Berry and Michael G. Miller

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David C. Berry

Column-editor : Joseph J. Piccininni

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David C. Berry and Michael G. Miller

Column-editor : Scott R. Sailor

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David C. Berry and M. Gene Miller

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David C. Berry and Michael G. Miller

Column-editor : Scott R. Sailor

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David C. Berry and Michael G. Miller

Edited by Malissa Martin

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Michael G. Miller and David C. Berry

Column-editor : Patrick Sexton

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry, and Joshua J. Ode

Context: Dynamic balance is a measure of core stability. Deficits in the dynamic balance have been related to injuries in the athletic populations. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is suggested to measure and improve dynamic balance when used as a rehabilitative tool. Objective: To determine the electromyographic activity of the hip and the trunk muscles during the SEBT. Design: Descriptive. Setting: University campus. Participants: Twenty-two healthy adults (11 males and 11 females; 23.3 [3.8] y, 170.3 [7.6] cm, 67.8 [10.3] kg, and 15.1% [5.0%] body fat). Intervention: Surface electromyographic data were collected on 22 healthy adults of the erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis bilaterally, and gluteus medius and gluteus maximus muscle of the stance leg. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the interaction between the percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) and the reach directions. The %MVIC for each muscle was compared across the 8 reach directions using the Sidak post hoc test with α at .05. Main Outcome Measures: %MVIC. Results: Significant differences were observed for all the 8 muscles. Highest electromyographic activity was found for the tested muscles in the following reach directions—ipsilateral external oblique (44.5% [38.4%]): anterolateral; contralateral external oblique (52.3% [40.8%]): medial; ipsilateral rectus abdominis (8% [6.6%]): anterior; contralateral rectus abdominis (8% [5.3%]): anteromedial; ipsilateral erector spinae (46.4% [20.2%]): posterolateral; contralateral erector spinae (33.5% [11.3%]): posteromedial; gluteus maximus (27.4% [11.7%]): posterior; and gluteus medius (54.6% [26.1%]): medial direction. Conclusions: Trunk and hip muscle activation was direction dependent during the SEBT. This information can be used during rehabilitation of the hip and the trunk muscles.