Two experiments are described comparing the temporal and spatial characteristics of the anticipatory cues used by expert (n=20) and novice (n=35) racquet sport players. In both experiments the perceptual display available in badminton was simulated using film, and display characteristics were selectively manipulated either by varying the duration of the stroke sequence that was visible (Experiment 1) or by selectively masking specific display features (Experiment 2). The subjects* task in all cases was to predict the landing position of the stroke they were viewing. It was found in Experiment 1 that experts were able to pick up more relevant information from earlier display cues than could novices, and this appeared in Experiment 2 to be due to their ability to extract advance information from the playing side arm, in addition to the racquet itself. These differences, it was concluded, were congruent with predictions that could be derived from traditional information-processing notions related to recognition of display redundancy. The roles of different anticipatory cue sources in the independent predictions of stroke speed and direction were also examined, and it was concluded that directional judgments were more dependent on cue specificity than were depth judgments.
Bruce Abernethy and David G. Russell
Suzanna Russell, Angus G. Evans, David G. Jenkins and Vincent G. Kelly
Purpose: To determine the efficacy of 20 minutes of external counterpulsation (ECP) on subsequent 1.2-km shuttle run test (1.2SRT) performance and perceived recovery following fatiguing high-intensity exercise. Methods: After familiarization, 13 recreationally active males (21.4 [1.9] y) participated in 2 experimental trials in a randomized crossover design. At 8:00 AM, participants completed a 1.2SRT, followed by an individualized high-intensity exercise bout and 20 minutes of ECP or supine passive rest (control). At 2:00 PM a second 1.2SRT was completed. Completion time for 1.2SRT (measured in seconds), heart rate, and Borg rating of perceived exertion were compared across conditions. Total quality of recovery and 100-mm visual analogue scale of perceived benefit of recovery were assessed at multiple time points. Results: A significantly smaller decline in PM 1.2SRT completion time compared with AM (baseline) was found for ECP compared with control (P = .008; moderate, very likely beneficial effect size of −0.77 [−1.53 to 0.05]). Total quality of recovery was significantly higher for ECP than control (P < .001), and perceived benefit of recovery was higher following ECP (P < .001, very large, most likely beneficial effect size of 2.08 [1.22 to 2.81]). Conclusions: Twenty minutes of ECP was found to be an effective recovery modality for within-day, between-bouts exercise, positively influencing subsequent 1.2SRT performance and enhancing perceptual recovery. ECP may be applied as a viable alternative to optimize and accelerate the recovery process, particularly in the event of congested training or competition demands.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan
The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Larry A. Scanlan, Tatiana J. Klunchoo and Graig M. Chow
Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players’ open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Noela C. Wilson and Larry A. Scanlan
We present an application of the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (SCIM) to the Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK). PEAK examines three samples of elite international athletes to further test and expand the Sport Commitment Model and assess its external validity. This first article in the series provides detailed descriptions of the study rationale, methods, procedures, interview schedule, and analysis strategy common to the three samples, along with participant characteristics and selection criteria. It also shares participants’ observations of the centrality of commitment to their athletic success, and their evaluation of the interview process.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Kristin P. Beals and Larry A. Scanlan
Prospective interview data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (Scanlan, Russell, Wilson, & Scanlan, 2003) allow further testing and expansion of the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons, & Keeler, 1993) and provide a deeper understanding of the commitment process. We examine the Model constructs of Sport Enjoyment, Involvement Opportunities, Involvement Alternatives, Personal Investments, Social Constraints, and a potential new construct, Social Support, to understand how and under what conditions each of the constructs operates. The data from 15 New Zealand All Black rugby players support the Model predictions, show its generalizability from American youth sport to amateur elite-level New Zealand athletes, and suggest possible Model expansion and modification.