The objective of this observational cross-sectional study was to investigate the normal motion of the median nerve when stretched during a neurodynamic exercise. In recent years, ultrasonography has been increasingly accepted as an imaging technique for examining peripheral nerves in vivo, offering a reliable and noninvasive method for a precise evaluation of nerve movement. Transverse motion of the median nerve in the arm during a neurodynamic test was measured. A volunteer sample of 22 healthy subjects (11 women) participated in the study. Nerve displacement and deformation were assessed by dynamic ultrasonography. Excellent interobserver agreement was obtained, with kappa coefficient of .7–.8. Ultrasonography showed no lateral motion during wrist extension in 68% of nerves, while 73% moved dorsally, with statistically significant differences between sexes (ORlat = 6.3; 95% CI = 1.4–27.7 and ORdor = 8.3; 95% CI = 1.6–44.6). The cross-sectional area was significantly greater in men (3.6 mm2). Quantitative analysis revealed no other statistically significant differences. Our results provide evidence of substantial individual differences in median nerve transverse displacement in response to a neurodynamic exercise.
Jacinto Javier Martínez-Payá, José Ríos-Díaz, María Elena del Baño-Aledo, David García-Martínez, Ana de Groot-Ferrando and Javier Meroño-Gallut
José D. Jiménez-García, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Manuel de la Torre-Cruz, Raquel Fábrega-Cuadros, Agustín Aibar-Almazán, David Cruz-Díaz and Antonio Martínez-Amat
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT) programs, both with a suspension training system, on several fall risk factors in healthy older adults. A total of 82 participants (68.23 ± 2.97 years) were randomized to HIIT (n = 28), MIIT (n = 27), or control (n = 27) groups. Balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale), fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale—International), dynamic balance (Timed Up and Go test), and gait analysis (OptoGait optical detection system) were assessed. Statistical analysis showed improvements after the intervention in the HIIT group compared with the MIIT and control groups regarding the fear of falling (p < .05 and p < .01, respectively), gait (both ps < .05), and dynamic balance (p < .05 and p < .01, respectively), whereas both HIIT and MIIT groups improved balance confidence compared with the control group (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). We can conclude that HIIT has significant beneficial effects of fall risk in older adults.
Irene Esteban-Cornejo, David Martinez-Gomez, Laura Garcia-Cervantes, Francisco B. Ortega, Alvaro Delgado-Alfonso, José Castro-Piñero and Oscar L. Veiga
This study examined the associations of objectively measured physical activity in Physical Education and recess with academic performance in youth.
This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,780 participants aged 6 to 18 years (863 girls). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry and was also classified according to sex- and agespecific quartiles of physical activity intensities. Academic performance was assessed through school records.
Physical activity in physical education (PE) and recess was not associated with academic performance (β ranging from –0.038 to –0.003; all P > .05). Youth in the lowest quartile of physical activity in PE engaged in an average of 1.40 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and those in the highest quartile engaged in 21.60 min (for recess: lowest quartile, 2.20 min; highest quartile, 11.15 min). There were no differences in academic performance between quartiles of physical activity in Physical Education and recess.
Time spent at different physical activity intensities during PE and recess does not impair academic performance in youth.