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Coaches’ and Officials’ Self-Reporting of Observational Learning

Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal, and David J. Hancock

Sport participants continually seek methods to hone their skills and achieve expert performance. One means to achieve this is through the use of observational learning (OL). The Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire (FOLQ) was created to measure the types of OL athletes used. The data presented herein builds from prior research in which the use of the FOLQ was extended to coaches and officials. The researchers included the following open-ended question: “Do you observe others/self for anything not addressed above?” Responses to this question, however, have yet to be reported. As such, the purpose of this study was to analyze participants’ responses to understand how coaches and officials use observational learning. Many identified codes encompassed ideas already included within the FOLQ; however, new coding categories emerged. Specifically, coaches reported using observational learning for Self-Reflection, officials reported using observational learning for Self-Presentation, and both groups reported using observational learning to improve Communication. These results demonstrate the importance of OL to coaches’ and officials’ development. Further, the results highlight that the FOLQ might overlook coaches’ and officials’ uses of OL. Regardless, the various uses of OL ought to be included in coaching and officiating education programs to foster elite performance.

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Physical Educators’ Perceptions and Experiences of Teaching Students With Mobility Disabilities

Jacob Benzinger, Jeff R. Crane, Angela M. Coppola, and David J. Hancock

Schools can support physical education (PE) among students with mobility disabilities (SMDs). However, previous research has indicated that people and resources in the school environment have served as facilitators and barriers to engaging SMDs in PE. Thus, the purpose of this pragmatic, qualitative study was to explore physical educators’ perceptions and experiences of teaching SMDs to learn how to develop a PE environment supportive of SMDs. Eleven K-8 PE teachers who taught SMDs engaged in semistructured interviews. A thematic analysis revealed three themes describing facilitators and barriers of a supportive PE environment for SMDs: (a) teacher planning, (b) students in the PE environment, and (c) resources and support. These findings provide context to PE environments for SMDs and highlight a need for increased communication and collaboration with students with or without mobility disabilities, training or professional development for PE teachers to develop skills for adapted PE, and financial and personnel support.

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Exploring Basic Needs, Motivation, and Retention Among Female Sport Officials

Janna K. Sunde, Robin Tharle-Oluk, Alice A. Theriault, and David J. Hancock

Sport officials in general, and female sport officials specifically, are underrepresented in the research. More work is required to better understand what attracts female sport officials to the role, along with what facilitates their retention. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between female sport officials’ motivations, basic needs, and intentions to remain as officials. Through an online survey, 186 female sport officials responded to (a) the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale (BNSSS), (b) the Referee Retention Scale (RRS), and (c) questions assessing Reasons for Becoming Officials. Pearson correlation tests established relationships among various subscales, and regression tests were conducted to determine whether any variables predicted RRS scores. All five BNSSS subscales significantly correlated with most RRS subscales and one Reasons for Becoming Officials subscale. Further, regression analysis revealed that increased scores on the BNSSS—specifically feelings of competence, choice, volition, and relatedness—predicted intentions to remain as officials, as measured by the RRS. Since the BNSSS predicts retention, sporting organizations should implement retention strategies that focus on building competence, volition, and relatedness among female sport officials.