For this study, Baumeister’s variability hypothesis (1968) was investigated in eight 10-year-old mildly mentally retarded (MMR) and 16 nonhandicapped boys matched on either mental age (MA) or chronological age (CA). The boys attempted 60 trials on a novel kicking task. Results indicated that CA-matched boys exhibited less absolute error than either MMR- or MA-matched boys, while the latter two groups performed similarly. Variable error was observed to be significantly greater for MA-matched boys than for either MMR- or CA-matched boys, while MMR boys performed with greater although not significant variable error than CA-matched boys. Significant correlations were obtained across trial blocks for both MMR and nonhandicapped boys, indicating that variable error does not contribute more to the performance levels of MMR than of nonhandicapped individuals.
David L. Porretta
David L. Porretta
This study investigated the effects of contextual interference on the immediate transfer and 2-day retention of a bean bag tossing task by mildly mentally handicapped children. A total of 24 boys and 24 girls with a mean chronological age of 10.2 years were randomly assigned to either a blocked, serial, or random practice condition. Following 48 practice trials with bean bags of various weights, subjects were transferred to two novel weighted bean bags. Both transfer and retention analyses showed that subjects in the random practice condition exhibited less error than subjects in either the blocked or serial practice conditions. However, these differences were not significant. Boys performed with significantly less error than girls on both transfer and retention, while regardless of gender, the heavier weighted bean bag resulted in significantly less error on transfer only. Results provide marginal support for the contention that greater contextual interference (random practice) leads to better transfer and retention than other types of practice conditions.
Edited by David L. Porretta
David L. Porretta and Claudine Sherrill
This paper reports both the contents and key developmental activities of Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly over its second decade of publication (1994-2003). The first section describes the contents of Volumes 11-20 relative to the number of articles by journal section, science area, disability category, and country. These data are compared to selected data reported for the journal’s first decade (1984-1993) of publication by Reid and Broadhead (1995). The second section describes developmental activities pertaining to enhancing the journal’s international quality through selected writings, impact factor recognition, editorial board membership, and guest reviewer database development.
Amaury Samalot-Rivera and David L. Porretta
The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators’ perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura’s social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face and content validity as well as test/retest reliability (0.89) were established. Of those that were surveyed, 53% (225 teachers; 148 females and 77 males) responded. Results indicate that 93% (209) believe it is important to explicitly teach social skills in PE; however, 60% (135) expressed not feeling properly prepared to teach them. Teachers with more than 20 years of teaching experience were more likely to actually teach social skills. When compared with other teachers with less years teaching, however, they identified a greater need for training in the teaching of social skills. Results are discussed relative to teacher preparation and practices as well as social skills taught for general education and community integration.
Francis M. Kozub and David L. Porretta
The purpose of this study was to identify issues that may need to be addressed so that adolescents with disabilities are better integrated into interscholastic sports programs. The Coaches Attitude Toward Integration Questionnaire (CATIQ) was developed specifically to survey coaches’ attitudes about including adolescents with disabilities in interscholastic programs. After preliminary reliability checks were made and content validity established, the CATIQ was mailed to a random sample of 397 public school coaches. Results indicated that coaches tend to show agreement with the statement that adolescents with disabilities “have a right to sport opportunities” in interscholastic programs. However, coaches felt inadequately trained to address the needs of individuals with disabilities in integrated interscholastic sports settings.
Jin-Jin Yang and David L. Porretta
Based on Singer’s (1986) method, we investigated the effects of a four-step strategy (ready, look, do, score) on training, maintenance, and generalization of three closed skills (basketball free throw, overhand softball throw, and dart throw) by adolescents (M age = 17.2) with mild mental retardation (MR). A multiple baseline across skills design was used. Performances of 3 males and 3 females across these three skills were examined. Participants averaged a total of 46 sessions for the duration of the study. Results indicated that participants increased performance 18–56% across all three closed skills during the training phase. A total of 4 participants maintained performance on all three skills when reminders were present, and 2 decreased performance when the reminders were removed. All participants exhibited improved performance when a reinforcer was introduced. Moreover, 5 participants were able to generalize the four-step strategy to a different setting.
Jennifer Faison-Hodge and David L. Porretta
This study compared physical education and recess physical activity levels of elementary school age students with mild mental retardation (MR) and students without disabilities who possessed either high or low cardiorespiratory fitness. For this study, the System for Observing Fitness Instructional Time (SOFIT), a measure of physical activity, was validated for students with mild MR. A significant difference for moderate to vigorous physical activity was obtained between settings. Findings suggest that students with MR and those without disabilities were more active during recess than during physical education. Students with mild MR and those with low cardiorespiratory fitness performed similarly in both the physical education and recess settings.
David L. Porretta, John Nesbitt, and Stan Labanowich
This article addresses the issue of terminology by discussing the terms adapted physical education, adapted physical recreation, adapted sport, and adapted physical activity. Reasons are presented which suggest that these terms, taken collectively, may best describe movement of a gross motor nature that pertains to individuals with disabilities. A terminology framework is then proposed that is based on both conceptual and practical programmatic considerations within the context of service delivery. This context utilizes all four of the above terms, which are presented within the notion of inclusion. The terms adapted physical education, adapted physical recreation, and adapted sport are conceptualized within the context of adapted physical activity. Within this service delivery context, adapted physical education refers to all curriculum-based instructional settings in educationally oriented environments, adapted physical recreation refers to activity in nonschool contexts, and adapted sport refers to high-level competition by elite performers under the governance of formal sport organizations.