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David M. Kahler

The complaint of persistent low back pain in an athlete is usually related to an identifiable structural disorder. As with all other medical conditions, effective treatment relies on an accurate diagnosis. Certain sporting activities are associated with characteristic acquired lesions; this knowledge, when combined with a thorough history and physical examination, will often dictate when the clinician should refer an athlete for further testing. Most causes of back pain in athletes can be treated nonsurgically if they are identified early and treated appropriately. The common congenital abnormalities, acquired conditions, and overuse syndromes causing low back pain in athletes will be discussed, along with appropriate diagnostic tests and treatment regimens.

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David E. Martin, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, David H. Perrin, David M. Kahler, and Frank C. McCue III

The purpose of this study was to assess anterior translation of the tibia using the Tibial Fixator Device (a mechanical leg stabilizer that controls tibial alignment) with the leg in three positions: neutral (N), internal rotation of 15° (IR), and external rotation of 15° (ER). Displacement was measured using a modified KT-1000 arthrometer. Eleven subjects with anterior cruciate ligament lesions were examined bilaterally in the three positions at 45, 67, and 89 newtons of anterior force. Three-factor repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant position effect regardless of force (p < .001). This effect was significant in the injured and noninjured legs. Displacement was greatest in ER and least in IR. These data indicate that the position of the tibia, maintained with an external leg restraint, has a significant effect on anterior displacement of the knee. Control of tibiofemoral alignment and modifications to the KT-1000 provide new potentials for instrumented arthrometry.

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Jayd M. Grossman, Brent L. Arnold, David H. Perrin, and David M. Kahler

This study evaluated the effectiveness of ibuprofen in treating delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the elbow flexors when taken prior to and following exercise. Twenty subjects received either 2,400 mg/day ibuprofen or a placebo four times per day. Subjects performed intense eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors to elicit DOMS. Concentric and eccentric peak torque production against an isokinetic resistance of 0.52 radls, range of motion at the elbow, and subjective soreness of the elbow flexors were measured. ANOVA indicated no significant group-by-time interaction for concentric peak torque, eccentric peak torque, or pain. A significant interaction was revealed for range of motion. There was a significant difference within each group's ROM but no interaction between groups. It was concluded that the use of 2,400 mg/day ibuprofen prior to and following intense eccentric exercise was no more effective than a placebo in treating DOMS of the elbow flexors.

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Jay N. Hertel, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, David M. Kahler, and David H. Perrin

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced anesthesia of the lateral ankle joint on proprioception as assessed in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions. Sixteen subjects were assessed under normal conditions and following an 8-cc injection of lidocaine into the anterior talofibular ligament of the ankle being tested. Center of balance and postural sway measurements were analyzed, revealing a significant lateral adjustment of center of balance during the stable tests compared to a medial adjustment during the dynamic tests under the anesthetized condition. ANOVA of postural sway scores revealed no main effect for condition (anesthesia vs. no anesthesia), but sway scores were higher during the two dynamic conditions as compared to the stable condition. ANOVA of joint position error scores revealed no main effect for condition. Findings suggest that inhibition of the joint receptor afferent fibers adversely affected joint proprioception as assessed while subjects were weight bearing but not while they were non-weight bearing.