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David M. Williams

The article reviews research relevant to a proposed conceptual model of exercise adherence that integrates the dual mode model and hedonic theory. Exercise intensity is posited to influence affective response to exercise via interoceptive (e.g., ventila-tory drive) and cognitive (e.g., perceived autonomy) pathways; affective response to exercise is posited to influence exercise adherence via anticipated affective response to future exercise. The potential for self-paced exercise to enhance exercise adherence is examined in the context of the proposed model and suggestions are given for future research. Further evidence in support of self-paced exercise could have implications for exercise prescription, especially among overweight, sedentary adults, who are most in need of interventions that enhance adherence to exercise programs.

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David M. Williams, Shira Dunsiger, Jessica A. Emerson, Chad J. Gwaltney, Peter M. Monti and Robert Miranda Jr.

Affective response to exercise may mediate the effects of self-paced exercise on exercise adherence. Fiftynine low-active (exercise <60 min/week), overweight (body mass index: 25.0–39.9) adults (ages 18–65) were randomly assigned to self-paced (but not to exceed 76% maximum heart rate) or prescribed moderate intensity exercise (64–76% maximum heart rate) in the context of otherwise identical 6-month print-based exercise promotion programs. Frequency and duration of exercise sessions and affective responses (good/bad) to exercise were assessed via ecological momentary assessment throughout the 6-month program. A regression-based mediation model was used to estimate (a) effects of experimental condition on affective response to exercise (path a = 0.20, SE = 0.28, f 2 = 0.02); (b) effects of affective response on duration/latency of the next exercise session (path b = 0.47, SE = 0.25, f 2 = 0.04); and (c) indirect effects of experimental condition on exercise outcomes via affective response (path ab = 0.11, SE = 0.06, f 2 = 0.10). Results provide modest preliminary support for a mediational pathway linking self-paced exercise, affective response, and exercise adherence.

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David M. Williams, Jyoti Savla, Brenda M. Davy, Sarah A. Kelleher, Elaina L. Marinik and Richard A. Winett

The purpose of the present research was to develop questionnaires to assess outcome expectancy for resistance training (RT), behavioral expectation in the context of perceived barriers to RT, and self-regulation strategies for RT among young-old adults (50-69 years). Measurement development included (a) item generation through elicitation interviews (N = 14) and open-ended questionnaires (N = 56), (b) expert feedback on a preliminary draft of the questionnaires (N = 4), and (c) a quantitative longitudinal study for item-reduction and psychometric analyses (N = 94). Elicitation procedures, expert feedback, and item reduction yielded four questionnaires with a total of 33 items. Positive outcome expectancy (α = .809), negative outcome expectancy (α = .729), behavioral expectation (α = .925), and self-regulation (α = .761) had—with one exception—moderate bivariate associations with two different indicators of self-reported RT behavior at one-month follow-up (r = .298 to .506). The present research provides preliminary support for newly developed questionnaires to facilitate understanding of the psychosocial determinants of RT among young-old adults.

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David M. Williams, George D. Papandonatos, Melissa A. Napolitano, Beth A. Lewis, Jessica A. Whiteley and Bess H. Marcus

Given the decreased rate of morbidity and mortality associated with physical activity, understanding the factors that enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions is a priority. The present study examined the moderating effect of baseline enjoyment of physical activity on the efficacy of a physical activity intervention. Participants were 238 healthy low-active adults enrolled in Project STRIDE, a randomized, controlled, clinical trial comparing individually tailored print and telephone interventions to a contact control. Results indicated a significant interaction between intervention assignment (telephone or print intervention vs. contact control) and baseline enjoyment on physical activity at 6 months, as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (z = 2.44, p < .05). These results indicate that our motivationally tailored physical activity promotion program may be more effective among individuals reporting greater enjoyment of physical activity at baseline, and suggest that attention be paid to designing programs that can be effective for participants who report lower levels of physical activity enjoyment.