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Exercise, Affect, and Adherence: An Integrated Model and a Case for Self-Paced Exercise

David M. Williams

The article reviews research relevant to a proposed conceptual model of exercise adherence that integrates the dual mode model and hedonic theory. Exercise intensity is posited to influence affective response to exercise via interoceptive (e.g., ventila-tory drive) and cognitive (e.g., perceived autonomy) pathways; affective response to exercise is posited to influence exercise adherence via anticipated affective response to future exercise. The potential for self-paced exercise to enhance exercise adherence is examined in the context of the proposed model and suggestions are given for future research. Further evidence in support of self-paced exercise could have implications for exercise prescription, especially among overweight, sedentary adults, who are most in need of interventions that enhance adherence to exercise programs.

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Youth Basketball Coaches’ Perceptions and Implementation of Fundamental Movement Skills Training: Toward a Realist Evaluation

Mark David Williams, Andrew M. Hammond, and Jason Moran

Purpose: To investigate youth basketball coaches’ perceptions and implementation of fundamental movement skills training. Method: Snowball and criterion-based sampling approaches were used to survey youth basketball coaches (n=79) beliefs and experiences relating to their perceptions and implementation of nonbasketball-specific skills and fundamental movement skills into practice. Realist evaluation inspired the analysis of descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) and reflexive qualitative thematic analysis to inform the results. Results: It was found that the participants had a comprehension of fundamental movement skills and acknowledge their value in the long-term development of youth players. However, there appeared to be varying levels of uptake among the surveyed coaches. Discussion: Based on these findings, coaches appear to hold sports specialization in a higher regard than the broader aspects of player development, illustrating a dichotomized perspective of fundamental movement skills and basketball. Conclusion: The findings suggest there is a need for governing bodies to develop innovative strategies to persuade youth basketball coaches to adopt nonsports-specific movement skills to improve their practice.

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Peak Loads Associated With High-Impact Physical Activities in Children

Zach Fassett, Adam E. Jagodinsky, David Q. Thomas, and Skip M. Williams

Physical activities involving impact loading are important for improving bone strength and mineral density in children. There is little research quantifying impact loads associated with various high-impact activities. Purpose: Examine the magnitude of peak ground reaction forces (pGRF) across different jumping activities in children. Methods: Eight children between 8 and 12 years (9.63 [1.49] y; 1.42 [0.08] m; 33.69 [4.81] kg), performed 5 trials of a broad jump, countermovement jump, jumping jack, leap jump, and drop jump on a force plate. The pGRF were determined during the landing phase of each activity and expressed in units of body weight (BW). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was employed to assess differences in pGRF across activities. Results: Drop jump exhibited the greatest pGRF (3.09 [0.46] BW) in comparison with the vertical jumping jack (2.56 [0.21] BW; P < .001) and countermovement jump (2.45 [0.22] BW; P = .001), as well as the horizontal broad jump (2.25 [0.2] BW; P = .003), and leap jump (2.01 [0.1] BW; P = .002). Conclusion: Peak loads between 2 and 3.1 BW were exhibited across each jump activity, which is moderate compared with magnitudes in most jump interventions seeking to improve bone health. All conditions except drop jump exhibited loading <3 BW, suggesting these activities may not produce sufficient loads to improve bone outcomes.

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Practices and Procedures in Clinical Pediatric Exercise Laboratories in North America

Kelli M. Teson, Jessica S. Watson, Wayne A. Mays, Sandy Knecht, Tracy Curran, Paul Rebovich, David D. Williams, Stephen M. Paridon, and David A. White

Interinstitutional differences in clinical pediatric exercise laboratory (CPEL) practices may affect patient care and efficacy of multicenter research. Purpose: To describe current practices/procedures in CPELs and explore differences in CPELs employing exercise physiologists to those that do not. Methods: A 40-item survey was distributed to CPELs in North America focusing on (1) staffing; (2) exercise stress testing (EST) volumes, reporting, and interpretation; and (3) EST procedures/protocols. Results: Of the 55 responses, 89% were in the United States, 85% were children’s hospitals with university affiliation, and 58% were cardiology specific. Exercise physiologists were employed in 56% of CPELs, and 78% had master’s degrees or higher. Certifications were required in most CPELs (92% emergency life-support, 27% professional, and 21% clinical). Median volume was 201 to 400 ESTs per year, 80% used treadmill, and 10% used cycle ergometer as primary modalities. Ninety-three percent of CPELs offered metabolic ESTs, 87% offered pulmonary function testing, 20% used institution-specific EST protocols, and 72% offered additional services such as cardiac/pulmonary rehabilitation. CPELS staffing exercise physiologists performed higher volumes of ESTs (P = .004), were more likely to perform metabolic ESTs (P = .028), participated in more research (P < .001), and provided services in addition to ESTs (P = .001). Conclusions: Heterogeneity in CPELs staffing and operation indicates need for standardization.

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Questionnaires for Outcome Expectancy, Self-Regulation, and Behavioral Expectation for Resistance Training Among Young-Old Adults: Development and Preliminary Validity

David M. Williams, Jyoti Savla, Brenda M. Davy, Sarah A. Kelleher, Elaina L. Marinik, and Richard A. Winett

The purpose of the present research was to develop questionnaires to assess outcome expectancy for resistance training (RT), behavioral expectation in the context of perceived barriers to RT, and self-regulation strategies for RT among young-old adults (50-69 years). Measurement development included (a) item generation through elicitation interviews (N = 14) and open-ended questionnaires (N = 56), (b) expert feedback on a preliminary draft of the questionnaires (N = 4), and (c) a quantitative longitudinal study for item-reduction and psychometric analyses (N = 94). Elicitation procedures, expert feedback, and item reduction yielded four questionnaires with a total of 33 items. Positive outcome expectancy (α = .809), negative outcome expectancy (α = .729), behavioral expectation (α = .925), and self-regulation (α = .761) had—with one exception—moderate bivariate associations with two different indicators of self-reported RT behavior at one-month follow-up (r = .298 to .506). The present research provides preliminary support for newly developed questionnaires to facilitate understanding of the psychosocial determinants of RT among young-old adults.

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Self-Paced Exercise, Affective Response, and Exercise Adherence: A Preliminary Investigation Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

David M. Williams, Shira Dunsiger, Jessica A. Emerson, Chad J. Gwaltney, Peter M. Monti, and Robert Miranda Jr.

Affective response to exercise may mediate the effects of self-paced exercise on exercise adherence. Fiftynine low-active (exercise <60 min/week), overweight (body mass index: 25.0–39.9) adults (ages 18–65) were randomly assigned to self-paced (but not to exceed 76% maximum heart rate) or prescribed moderate intensity exercise (64–76% maximum heart rate) in the context of otherwise identical 6-month print-based exercise promotion programs. Frequency and duration of exercise sessions and affective responses (good/bad) to exercise were assessed via ecological momentary assessment throughout the 6-month program. A regression-based mediation model was used to estimate (a) effects of experimental condition on affective response to exercise (path a = 0.20, SE = 0.28, f 2 = 0.02); (b) effects of affective response on duration/latency of the next exercise session (path b = 0.47, SE = 0.25, f 2 = 0.04); and (c) indirect effects of experimental condition on exercise outcomes via affective response (path ab = 0.11, SE = 0.06, f 2 = 0.10). Results provide modest preliminary support for a mediational pathway linking self-paced exercise, affective response, and exercise adherence.

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Perceived Enjoyment Moderates the Efficacy of an Individually Tailored Physical Activity Intervention

David M. Williams, George D. Papandonatos, Melissa A. Napolitano, Beth A. Lewis, Jessica A. Whiteley, and Bess H. Marcus

Given the decreased rate of morbidity and mortality associated with physical activity, understanding the factors that enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions is a priority. The present study examined the moderating effect of baseline enjoyment of physical activity on the efficacy of a physical activity intervention. Participants were 238 healthy low-active adults enrolled in Project STRIDE, a randomized, controlled, clinical trial comparing individually tailored print and telephone interventions to a contact control. Results indicated a significant interaction between intervention assignment (telephone or print intervention vs. contact control) and baseline enjoyment on physical activity at 6 months, as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (z = 2.44, p < .05). These results indicate that our motivationally tailored physical activity promotion program may be more effective among individuals reporting greater enjoyment of physical activity at baseline, and suggest that attention be paid to designing programs that can be effective for participants who report lower levels of physical activity enjoyment.

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PRESENT 2020: Text Expanding on the Checklist for Proper Reporting of Evidence in Sport and Exercise Nutrition Trials

James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan, and Greg Atkinson

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Global Matrix 4.0 Physical Activity Report Card Grades for Children and Adolescents: Results and Analyses From 57 Countries

Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Iryna Demchenko, Myranda Hawthorne, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, José Carmelo Adsuar Sala, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Susana Aznar, Peter Bakalár, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Mikel Bringas, Jonathan Y. Cagas, Angela Carlin, Chen-Kang Chang, Bozhi Chen, Lars Breum Christiansen, Candice Jo-Anne Christie, Gabriela Fernanda De Roia, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Visnja Djordjic, Arunas Emeljanovas, Liri Findling Endy, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Kylie D. Hesketh, Wendy Yajun Huang, Omphile Hubona, Justin Y. Jeon, Danijel Jurakić, Jaak Jürimäe, Tarun Reddy Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Yeon-Soo Kim, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Sharon Levi, Pablo Lobo, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, José Francisco López-Gil, Juan López-Taylor, Evelin Mäestu, Agus Mahendra, Daga Makaza, Marla Frances T. Mallari, Taru Manyanga, Bojan Masanovic, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Laura Muñoz Bermejo, Marie H. Murphy, Rowena Naidoo, Phuong Nguyen, Susan Paudel, Željko Pedišić, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, John J. Reilly, Anne Kerstin Reimers, Amie B. Richards, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, Olga L. Sarmiento, Vedrana Sember, Mohd Razif Shahril, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tuija H. Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, Riki Tesler, David Thivel, Dawn Mahube Tladi, Lenka Tlučáková, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Alun Williams, Stephen Heung Sang Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background: The Global Matrix 4.0 on physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents was developed to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the global variation in children’s and adolescents’ (5–17 y) PA, related measures, and key sources of influence. The objectives of this article were (1) to summarize the findings from the Global Matrix 4.0 Report Cards, (2) to compare indicators across countries, and (3) to explore trends related to the Human Development Index and geo-cultural regions. Methods: A total of 57 Report Card teams followed a harmonized process to grade the 10 common PA indicators. An online survey was conducted to collect Report Card Leaders’ top 3 priorities for each PA indicator and their opinions on how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted child and adolescent PA indicators in their country. Results: Overall Physical Activity was the indicator with the lowest global average grade (D), while School and Community and Environment were the indicators with the highest global average grade (C+). An overview of the global situation in terms of surveillance and prevalence is provided for all 10 common PA indicators, followed by priorities and examples to support the development of strategies and policies internationally. Conclusions: The Global Matrix 4.0 represents the largest compilation of children’s and adolescents’ PA indicators to date. While variation in data sources informing the grades across countries was observed, this initiative highlighted low PA levels in children and adolescents globally. Measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, local/international conflicts, climate change, and economic change threaten to worsen this situation.