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David Markland

According to Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self-determination theory, perceptions of self-determination moderate the effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation, with perceived competence only positively influencing intrinsic motivation under conditions of some self-determination. Vallerand’s (1997) hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation suggests that self-determination and competence have only independent effects on intrinsic motivation. The aim of this study was to test these competing models. Women aerobics participants (n = 146) completed measures of self-determination, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation for exercise. Moderated hierarchical regression revealed a significant interactive effect of self-determination and perceived competence. A plot of the regression of intrinsic motivation on perceived competence under conditions of high and low self-determination, however, showed that the interaction did not take the expected form. Variations in perceived competence positively influenced intrinsic motivation only under conditions of low self-determination. This suggests that it is particularly important to foster perceptions of competence among individuals low in self-determination.

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David Markland and Vannessa Tobin

Drawing on self-determination theory, Mullan, Markland, and Ingledew (1997) developed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ) to measure the continuum of behavioral regulation in exercise contexts. The BREQ assesses external, identified, introjected, and intrinsic regulations. Mullan et al. initially included a set of amotivation items but dropped these due to high levels of skewness and a restricted response range in their development sample. It would clearly be useful to assess amotivation for exercise. This study aimed to test the factorial validity of a modified BREQ with amotivation items reinstated in a sample likely to exhibit a wider range of amotivation responses. A total of 194 former exercise referral scheme participants completed the revised instrument (BREQ-2). Although the amotivation items were still skewed, confirmatory factor analysis using the Satorra-Bentler (1994) scaling correction to χ2 indicated an excellent model ft. The BREQ-2 could prove useful to researchers wishing to assess amotivation in order to develop a more complete understanding of motivation for exercise.

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David Markland, Mark Emberton, and Rachel Tallon

The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.

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Gaynor Parfitt, David Markland, and Colin Holmes

An experiment is presented that investigates the relationship between gender, exercise history, and psychological affect during and after exercising at different workloads. High-active and low-active subjects reported their psychological affect in the last 30 s of and 5 min after exercising at 60 and 90% VO2max workloads. Results indicated that high-active subjects (both males and females) were significantly more positive in the 90% workload condition than were the low-active group, but there was no difference between the groups in the 60% workload condition (p < .001). These results suggest that psychological affect in exercise settings is influenced by exercise history, workload, and time when self-reported affect is requested.

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Elaine Mullan, John Albinson, and David Markland

This study explored whether children differentiate between their physical capabilities at play activities, informal recreational activities, and formal competitive activities. Harter’s (11) six-item Athletic Competence subscale from the SelfPerception Profile for Children was administered to 578 children and adolescents (ages 7-15 years). The items were modified to refer to three different categories of physical activity instead of sport or outdoor games as used in the original subscale. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that children differentiated between the three categories of physical activity, and that the competitive sport category was their area of lowest perceived competence. Males had higher levels of perceived competence than females in each category.

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Ross Roberts, Nichola Callow, Lew Hardy, David Markland, and Joy Bringer

The purpose of this research was to amend the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ; Isaac, Marks, & Russell, 1986) in line with contemporary imagery modality and perspective conceptualizations, and to test the validity of the amended questionnaire (i.e., the VMIQ-2). Study 1 had 351 athletes complete the 3-factor (internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, and kinesthetic imagery) 24-item VMIQ-2. Following single-factor confirmatory factor analyses and item deletion, a 12-item version was subject to correlated traits / correlated uniqueness (CTCU) analysis. An acceptable fit was revealed. Study 2 used a different sample of 355 athletes. The CTCU analysis confirmed the factorial validity of the 12-item VMIQ-2. In Study 3, the concurrent and construct validity of the VMIQ-2 was supported. Taken together, the results of the 3 studies provide preliminary support for the revised VMIQ-2 as a psychometrically valid questionnaire.

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Tanya R. Berry, Wendy M. Rodgers, David Markland, and Craig R. Hall

Investigating implicit–explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit–explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.

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David Sánchez-Oliva, Antonio L. Palmeira, Eliana V. Carraça, Pedro J. Teixeira, David Markland, and Marlene N. Silva

Background: Using self-determination theory as a framework, the aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) identify different profiles of motivational strategies used by exercise professionals and (2) examine associations of these motivational profiles with work-related variables: measures, perceived job pressures, need satisfaction/frustration, and perceived exercisers’ motivation. Methods: Participants were 366 exercise professionals (193 males; experience = 7.7 [5.8] y) currently working in health and fitness settings. Results: Latent profile analysis identified a 3-profile model: (1) most need-supportive and least controlling (NS+; n = 225), (2) less need-supportive and slightly controlling (NS−; n = 42), and (3) most controlling and slightly need-supportive (mixed; n = 99). Professionals working less than 20 hours per week, more experienced, and female were more likely to integrate NS+, which was also associated with higher levels of work-related need satisfaction and clients’ perceived self-determination, and lower levels of job pressures and need-frustration. Conversely, NS− displayed the most maladaptive pattern of associations. Conclusions: The present findings highlight the importance of analyzing the correlates of different professional profiles, namely to help health and fitness organizations to provide high-quality motivational practices within an appropriate environment both for professionals and clients.