Two experiments are described comparing the temporal and spatial characteristics of the anticipatory cues used by expert (n=20) and novice (n=35) racquet sport players. In both experiments the perceptual display available in badminton was simulated using film, and display characteristics were selectively manipulated either by varying the duration of the stroke sequence that was visible (Experiment 1) or by selectively masking specific display features (Experiment 2). The subjects* task in all cases was to predict the landing position of the stroke they were viewing. It was found in Experiment 1 that experts were able to pick up more relevant information from earlier display cues than could novices, and this appeared in Experiment 2 to be due to their ability to extract advance information from the playing side arm, in addition to the racquet itself. These differences, it was concluded, were congruent with predictions that could be derived from traditional information-processing notions related to recognition of display redundancy. The roles of different anticipatory cue sources in the independent predictions of stroke speed and direction were also examined, and it was concluded that directional judgments were more dependent on cue specificity than were depth judgments.
Bruce Abernethy and David G. Russell
Matthew Nicholson, Russell Hoye and David Gallant
This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study into the perceptions of social support held by elite Indigenous athletes playing in the Australian Football League. Indigenous athletes within the AFL appear to require more culturally relevant and specialized support structures than non-Indigenous athletes. The study illustrates that teammates of a similar cultural background are the most important providers of social support and that Indigenous led and implemented support structures and programs seem most likely to be successful in supporting Indigenous athletes. The study highlighted that the family and community connections held by Indigenous athletes are little understood by their non-Indigenous teammates, their clubs or the league, yet they form an essential network of social support that provides the foundation for Indigenous participation and individual success.
Mark Russell, David Benton and Michael Kingsley
This study examined the effects of exercise-induced fatigue on soccer skills performed throughout simulated match play.
Fifteen academy soccer players completed a soccer match simulation (SMS) including passing, dribbling, and shooting skills. Precision, success rate, and ball speed were determined via video analysis for all skills. Blood samples were obtained before exercise (preexercise), every 15 min during the simulation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min), and 10 min into half-time.
Preliminary testing confirmed test-retest repeatability of performance, physiological, and metabolic responses to 45 min of the SMS. Exercise influenced shooting precision (timing effect: P = .035) and passing speed (timing effect: P = .011), such that shots taken after exercise were 25.5 ± 4.0% less accurate than those taken before exercise and passes in the last 15 min were 7.8 ± 4.3% slower than in the first 15 min. Shot and pass speeds were slower during the second half compared with the first half (shooting: 17.3 ± 0.3 m·s-1 vs 16.6 ± 0.3 m·s-1, P = 0.012; passing: 13.0 ± 0.5 m·s-1 vs 12.2 ± 0.5 m·s-1, P = 0.039). Dribbling performance was unaffected by exercise. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above preexercise values throughout exercise (time of sample effect: P < .001).
These findings demonstrate that soccer-specific exercise influenced the quality of performance in gross motor skills, such as passing and shooting. Therefore, interventions to maintain skilled performance during the second half of soccer match play are warranted.
David Russell and Jo-Ana D. Chase
This study examined sedentary behaviors among older adults and explored associations with social context and health measures using cross-sectional data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 1,687). Multivariate models were estimated to explore associations of time in six sedentary behaviors (i.e., television watching, sitting and talking, hobbies, computer use, driving, and resting) with sociodemographic characteristics and level of social engagement and with health status. Results indicated substantial variability in sedentary behaviors, with television watching being the most frequent and resting the least frequent activities. Sedentary behaviors varied by sociodemographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and education, as well as by level of social engagement. Television watching and resting, but not other behaviors, were associated with poorer health. These findings help to unpack the role of social context in sedentary behaviors and could inform public health interventions aimed at reducing time spent in behaviors that are adversely associated with health.
Daniel B. Bornstein, Russell R. Pate and David M. Buchner
Efforts to increase population levels of physical activity are increasingly taking the form of strategic plans at national, state/regional, and local levels. The processes employed for developing such plans have not been described previously. The purpose of this article is to chronicle the processes employed in and lessons learned from developing the US National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP).
The Coordinating Committee oversaw development of the NPAP. Key steps in the process included creating a private–public coalition based in the private sector, organizing the NPAP around 8 societal sectors, reviewing the evidence base for promotion of physical activity in each sector, conducting a national conference to initiate development of the NPAP’s core content, ensuring broad participation in developing and refining the NPAP, and launching the NPAP through a press event that attracted national attention.
Results and Conclusion:
The 3-year effort to develop the NPAP was guided by a private–public collaborative partnership involving private sector organizations and government agencies. Launched in May 2010, the NPAP included more than 250 evidence-based recommendations for changes to policy and practice at the national, state, and local levels across 8 societal sectors.
Shannon David, Kim Gray, Jeffrey A. Russell and Chad Starkey
The original and modified Ottawa Ankle Rules (OARs) were developed as clinical decision rules for use in emergency departments. However, the OARs have not been evaluated as an acute clinical evaluation tool.
To evaluate the measures of diagnostic accuracy of the OARs in the acute setting.
The OARs were applied to all appropriate ankle injuries at 2 colleges (athletics and club sports) and 21 high schools. The outcomes of OARs, diagnosis, and decision for referral were collected by the athletic trainers (ATs) at each of the locations. Contingency tables were created for evaluations completed within 1 h for which radiographs were obtained. From these data the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated.
The OARs met the criteria for radiographs in 100 of the 124 cases, of which 38 were actually referred for imaging. Based on radiographic findings in an acute setting, the OARs (n = 38) had a high sensitivity (.88) and are good predictors to rule out the presence of a fracture. Low specificity (0.00) results led to a high number of false positives and low positive predictive values (.18).
When applied during the first hour after injury the OARs significantly overestimate the need for radiographs. However, a negative finding rules out the need to obtain radiographs. It appears the AT’s decision making based on the totality of the examination findings is the best filter in determining referral for radiographs.
Russell R. Pate, Jennifer L. Gay, David R. Brown and Michael Pratt
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan
The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Larry A. Scanlan, Tatiana J. Klunchoo and Graig M. Chow
Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players’ open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Noela C. Wilson and Larry A. Scanlan
We present an application of the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (SCIM) to the Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK). PEAK examines three samples of elite international athletes to further test and expand the Sport Commitment Model and assess its external validity. This first article in the series provides detailed descriptions of the study rationale, methods, procedures, interview schedule, and analysis strategy common to the three samples, along with participant characteristics and selection criteria. It also shares participants’ observations of the centrality of commitment to their athletic success, and their evaluation of the interview process.