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David K. Scott

This study used the “multiframe” (structural, human resource, political, and symbolic) organizational theory of Bolman and Deal (1991b) to examine aspects of leadership and organizational climate in intercollegiate athletic departments. Top-5 finalist athletic departments from 4 collegiate divisions (NCAA I, II, and III and NAIA) for the 1993-96 Sears Directors’ Cup award served as tie sample. The 4 frames were all useful as descriptors of leadership and climate among the departments. However, ADs and head coaches differed significantly in their perceptions of the frame best describing AD leadership. · There was evidence of strong agreement on perceptions of climate within several departments, but the political frame was perceived as least descriptive at every level of analysis. A MANOVA uncovered no significant differences in perceptions of the 4 frames with gender and division of competition as independent variables. Multiple regression revealed that different frames predict how employees perceive their ADs’ effectiveness as managers and leaders.

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Scott C. White and David Winter

Repeat trials of a race walker were analyzed to ascertain the contribution to energy changes made by the lower limb muscles. A sagittal plane link segment model was used to calculate mechanical powers at the hip, knee and ankle. The ankle plantarflexors provided the major energy necessary to propel the body forward. Muscles about the hip contribute to a lesser extent via energy generation and transfer. At the knee, the muscles acted mainly as energy absorbers and did not contribute to forward propulsion. Mechanical powers calculated for the race walker were compared to other forms of locomotion. Patterns unique to the race walker were identified and discussed.

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Lorna M. Scott, David Scott, Sonja P. Bedic and Joseph Dowd

This study outlined the implementation and evaluation of one associative and two dissociative coping strategies on rowing ergometer performance. Participants were 9 novice varsity rowers who performed a 40-min ergometer workout in 10 separate experimental sessions. At each workout participants were requested to row as far as possible in 40 min. A multiple-baseline design was utilized, which after varying amounts of baseline permitted implementing an associative or dissociative strategy for each participant. These strategies included associative, dissociative-video, and dissociative-music. Results indicated that performance improved under all conditions for all participants but that the greatest gains were found in the associative condition.

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David Arthur, Don Scott and Terry Woods

The general acceptance of sport sponsorship by corporate and sporting worlds alike has led to a situation whereby corporations receive from hundreds to thousands of unsolicited proposals annually. Despite this, there is a general lack of systematic research into sport sponsorship with little information in existence as to how corporations decide between alternative properties. In an attempt to address this situation, this paper develops a conceptual model of the sport sponsorship acquisition process based on the basic tenets of organizational purchasing behavior, contemporary literature on sport sponsorship, and the results of a qualitative study. It is anticipated that the Sport Sponsorship Acquisition Model will form the basis for further scholarly research to ascertain the precise nature of the acquisition process.

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Scott C. Haynes and David H. Perrin

This investigation examined the effect of a counterirritant on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Fourteen female subjects had DOMS induced in the elbow flexor muscles of the nondominant arm through repeated eccentric contractions. Subjects returned 48 hrs after exercise and were randomly assigned to either a counterirritant ointment (CO) or placebo ointment (PO) treatment group. They were asked to quantify the amount of pain they experienced using a graphic pain rating scale while attempting to extend their elbow. Eight ml of the counterirritant or placebo ointment was applied to the anterior aspect of the arm centered directly over the biceps brachii. Pain and range of motion measurements were taken both pretreatment and 15 minutes posttreatment. Analysis of variance revealed that the CO group experienced significant pain relief and increased range of motion while the placebo group showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that counterirritants may be an effective means of treating the pain and restricted range of motion associated with delayed onset muscle soreness.

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Scott A. Conger and David R. Bassett Jr.

The purpose of this study was to develop a compendium of wheelchair-related physical activities. To accomplish this, we conducted a systematic review of the published energy costs of activities performed by individuals who use wheelchairs. A total of 266 studies were identified by a literature search using relevant keywords. Inclusion criteria were studies utilizing individuals who routinely use a manual wheelchair, indirect calorimetry as the criterion measurement, energy expenditure expressed as METs or VO2, and physical activities typical of wheelchair users. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 63 different wheelchair activities were identified with energy expenditure values ranging from 0.8 to 12.5 kcal·kg-1·hr-1. The energy requirements for some activities differed between individuals who use wheelchairs and those who do not. The compendium of wheelchair-related activities can be used to enhance scoring of physical activity surveys and to promote the benefits of activity in this population.

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Matthew S. Hickey, David L. Costill and Scott W. Trappe

This study investigated the influence of drink carbonation and carbohydrate content on ad libitum drinking behavior and body fluid and electrolyte responses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Eight competitive male runners completed three 2-hr treadmill runs at 60% VO2max in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 C° and 40% RH. Three test drinks were used: 8% carbohydrate, low carbonation (8%-C); 8% carbohydrate, noncarbonated (8%-NC), and water (0%-NC). Blood samples were taken preexercise (0), at 60 and 120 min of exercise, and at 60 min of recovery (+60 min). The data suggest that while reports of heartburn tend to be higher on 8% carbohydrate drinks than on 0%-NC, this does not appear to be a function of drink carbonation. Similarly, the increased frequency of heartbum did not significantly reduce fluid consumption either during exercise or during a 60-min recovery period. Importantly, no differences were observed between fluid and electrolyte, or thermoregulatory responses to the three sport drinks. Thus, consumption of low-carbonation beverages does not appear to significantly influence drinking behavior or the related physiological responses during prolonged exercise in the heat.

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David E. Conroy, Andrew J. Elliot and Scott M. Hofer

Achievement goals in sport have traditionally been defined according to the definition of competence alone (i.e., mastery/task, performance/ego). Emerging research and theory from the academic domain indicates that the utility of the achievement goal construct can be enhanced when the valence (i.e., approach, avoidance) of goals is also considered in conjunction with the definition of competence. The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of scores for mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals from a measure of achievement goals in sport. The a priori 2 × 2 model fit the data better than any of the plausible alternative models. In a series of longitudinal factorial invariance and latent growth curve analyses, scores for the four subscales exhibited structural invariance, and both differential and latent mean stability over a 21-day period. Achievement goal scores conformed to theoretical predictions regarding their relationship with fear-of-failure scores. The AGQ-S would be an appropriate instrument for future research using the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals in sport, particularly for experimental/intervention research on change processes associated with achievement goals.

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David K. Wiggins, Maureen R. Weiss and R. Scott Kretchmar

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Yun Seok Choi, Minhee Seo, David Scott and Jeffrey Martin

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) based on the Competing Values Framework (CVF). More specially, cultural equivalence between the Korean version and the original English version of the OCAI was evaluated using 39 bilingual Koreans. Next, a field test was conducted to examine scale reliability and construct validity of the Korean version of the OCAI using 133 organizational members from the Korean Professional Baseball League (KPBL). The findings indicate that the Korean version was successfully translated, items maintained the same meaning of the original OCAI items, and yielded acceptable psychometric properties making it applicable to Korean sport organizations.