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Ross Lorimer and David Holland-Smith

The purpose of this study was to examine the influences that led an individual to becoming and remaining an outdoor adventure sport coach. A case study of a single high level climbing/kayaking coach is presented using inductive thematic analysis to explore his perception of the factors that have influenced him before and during his career. This approach provides a unique insight into the social influences on coaches and how they inform coaches’ personal values. The study revealed a pattern of formative experiences acting on the participant throughout his life and career. Early experiences, exposure to the sport, and contact with significant others have influenced his decision to participate in outdoor adventure sports and allow him to derive satisfaction from passing his knowledge onto others. The value of this single coach’s personal experiences of sport is discussed in relation to the insight they provide into why coaches enter and stay in coaching careers.

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Mason D. Smith and David R. Bell


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is the standard of care for individuals with ACL rupture. Balance deficits have been observed in patients with ACL reconstruction (ACLR) using advanced posturography, which is the current gold standard. It is unclear if postural-control deficits exist when assessed by the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), which is a clinical assessment of balance.


The purpose of this study is to determine if postural-control deficits are present in individuals with ACLR as measured by the BESS.


Thirty participants were included in this study. Fifteen had a history of unilateral ACLR and were compared with 15 matched controls.


The BESS consists of 3 stances (double-limb, single-limb, and tandem) on 2 surfaces (firm and foam). Participants begin in each stance with hands on their hips and eyes closed while trying to stand as still as possible for 20 s.

Main Outcome Measures:

Each participant performed 3 trials of each stance (18 total), and errors were assessed during each trial and summed to create a total score.


We observed a significant group × stance interaction (P = .004) and a significant main effect for stance (P < .001). Post hoc analysis revealed that the ACLR group had worse balance on the single-leg foam stance than did controls. Finally, the reconstructed group had more errors when total BESS score was examined (P = .02).


Balance deficits exist in individuals with ACLR as measured by the BESS. Total BESS score was different between groups. The only condition that differed between groups was the single-leg stance on the unstable foam surface.

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David E. Conroy and Lorna Smith Benjamin

Psychodynamic concepts have only recently begun to attract serious attention in the sport psychology literature. A dynamically based, interpersonal approach to sport psychology consultation is outlined in this article. Key interpersonal constructs such as important persons and their internalized representations (IPIRs), copy processes, and self-sacrificing gifts of love are described to portray how a case formulation may be developed to explain and guide interventions to overcome some performance problems. Two cases, one involving a performance phobia and the other an enduring slump related to a fear of success, are presented to demonstrate the unique contributions of interpersonal case formulations in performance enhancement consultation.

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Meridith Griffin, Brett Smith, P. David Howe, and Cassandra Phoenix

In this paper we present a scoping review of literature on aging, visual impairment, and physical activity. Our objectives are to: (a) explore the available literature on aging, physical activity, and sight loss; (b) describe how participation in physical activity by older adults with visual impairment is understood by researchers; and, (c) identify benefits, barriers, and facilitators of physical activity participation as reported by older adults with age-related sight loss. Over 2,000 sources were reviewed, with 30 studies meeting eligibility criteria. Findings were organized into four thematic categories, namely: (a) participation rates; (b) health inequalities; (c) barriers to physical activity participation; and, (d) benefits of physical activity participation. Through this scoping review process, extant knowledge was synthesized and gaps in the literature were critically assessed. To address these gaps, several avenues for future research are outlined and described, alongside a consideration of the implications of the scoping review findings for both policy and practice.

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Katrine Moreale, Jay Smith, David A. Krause, and Diane L. Dahm


To examine the accuracy and reliability of upper limb target pointing among normal subjects.


Prospective observational.


Community sports-medicine practice.


28 male and female normal right-handed volunteers age 22–35 years.


8-point target-pointing task completed with both upper limbs.

Main Outcome Measures:

Accuracy of point reproduction (cm error) and reliability over time (ICC2,1).


Target-pointing errors were 4.8–9.9 cm. Subject error and reach height explained 88% of performance variability. Error was greater when pointing to the lower half of the target (P < .05) and to ipsilateral points (P < .05). Gender, test day, reach length, and arm dominance did not affect accuracy. Test–retest reliability ranged from .30 to .71.


Target-pointing tasks might be useful to assess upper limb neuromuscular control. Points with lower errors and greater reliabilities might be useful to differentiate normal vs abnormal performances, whereas a battery of reliable points over a spectrum of errors might be useful to document changes over time.

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James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith, and Clinton Wallis

Most studies of high-speed lower body movements include practice repetitions for facilitating consistency between the trials. We investigated whether 20 repetitions of drop landing (from a 30.5-cm platform onto a force plate) could improve consistency in maximum ground reaction force, linear lower body stiffness, depth of landing, and jump height in 20 healthy, young adults. Coefficient of variation was the construct for variability used to compare the first to the last five repetitions for each variable. We found that the practice had the greatest effect on maximum ground reaction force (p = .017), and had smaller and similar effects on lower body stiffness and depth of landing (p values = .074 and .044, respectively), and no measurable effect on jump height. These findings suggest that the effect of practice on drop landing differs depending upon the variable measure and that 20 repetitions significantly improve consistency in ground reaction force.

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Claire L. Palmer, Les Burwitz, Nickolas C. Smith, and David Collins

This study uses naturalistic inquiry to identify fitness training facilitators and barriers experienced by elite netball players and to determine whether they were related to types of Fitness training behavior. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female national netball players. Inductive analysis revealed large variability between players’ fitness-training behaviors. Four case families of training behavior based on similar adoption and maintenance behaviors were identified. Cross-case analysis revealed that (a) self-motivation, enjoyment, attitude toward fitness training, and role of an England netball player were key facilitators of fitness training behavior; (b) facilitators and barriers appeared similar to those identified in the exercise-adherence literature; and (c) most facilitators and barriers could be viewed as operating through a revised theory of planned behavior (Maddux, 1993). Practical applications of the findings are discussed.

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Patrick W. Kennedy Jr., David L. Wright, and Gerald A. Smith

The precision of the kinematic values depends upon the methods of recording a subject’s motion. With the introduction of video recording techniques, questions have arisen concerning the accuracy of video compared with that of 16-mm film. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the two techniques for point reprediction using the Direct Linear Transformation method. Range poles, serving as boundaries of a cube with 20 known spatial coordinates, were filmed and videotaped. The 20 control points on the film and video recordings were digitized by three individuals. Nine sets of digitized points (three digitizers × three trials) for both film and video were compared with the actual three-dimensional coordinate values. Resultant mean errors were statistically significantly different (p<.05), 4.8 mm and 5.8 mm for film and video, respectively. However, from a practical standpoint the video error was only .29% of the calibrated field compared to .24% for film. Thus it is concluded that video techniques are comparable in accuracy to 16-mm filming methods.

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Michelle Smith, Hayley E. McEwan, David Tod, and Amanda Martindale

The research team explored UK trainee sport and exercise psychologists’ perspectives on developing professional-judgment and decision-making (PJDM) expertise during their British Psychological Society Qualification in Sport and Exercise Psychology (Stage 2). An assorted analysis approach was adopted to combine an existing longitudinal qualitative data set with the collection and analysis of a new qualitative data set. Participants (1 female, 6 male) were interviewed 4 times over a 3-yr training period, at minimum yearly intervals. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and reflexive thematic analysis applied to transcripts using the theoretical concepts of PJDM. Experience, analytical reasoning, and observation of other practitioners’ practice was useful for developing PJDM expertise. PJDM expertise might be optimized through the use of knowledge-elicitation principles. For example, supervisors could embed critical cues in the anecdotes they share to expand the experience base that trainees can draw from when making decisions.

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Anna Baylis, David Cameron-Smith, and Louise M. Burke

Many athletes report using a wide range of special sports foods and supplements. In the present study of 77 elite Australian swimmers, 99% of those surveyed reported the use of these special preparations, with 94% of swimmers reporting the use of non-food supplements. The most popular dietary supplements were vitamin or mineral supplements (used by 94% of the group), herbal preparations (61%), and creatine (31%). Eighty-seven percent of swimmers reported using a sports drink or other energy-providing sports food. In total, 207 different products were reported in this survey. Sports supplements, particularly supplements presented as pills or other non-food form, are poorly regulated in most countries, with little assurance of quality control. The risk of an inadvertent “positive doping test” through the use of sports supplements or sports foods is a small but real problem facing athletes who compete in events governed by anti-doping rules. The elite swimmers in this survey reported that information about the “doping safety” of supplements was important and should be funded by supplement manufacturers. Although it is challenging to provide such information, we suggest a model to provide an accredited testing program suitable for the Australian situation, with targeted athlete education about the “sports safety” of sports supplements and foods.