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David Thivel and Pascale Duché

Although physical activity is primarily considered for its effects on energy expenditure for prevention and treatment of both overweight and obesity, its role in the regulation and control of energy balance seems more complex. Not only does physical activity affect energy expenditure, it also leads to modifications in energy intake and appetite that have been identified in children and that should be considered for weight loss. It also appears that it may not systematically favor increased energy expenditure due to individual differences in compensatory responses. This brief paper summarizes the pediatric evidence regarding those potential compensatory responses to physical activity and suggests that these compensatory responses of increasing physical activity levels may depend on children’s adiposity status.

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Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Vicky Drapeau, David Thivel, and Marie-Eve Mathieu

Background: High-intensity exercise can have an anorectic impact, leading to negative energy balance. Several studies have reported that the practice of physical activity could also cause a shift in perceptions and preferences, causing a change in food intakes. Objective: This study aimed to question to what extent the timing of exercise in relation to a meal could have an impact on olfaction and gustation, appetite, and food choices. Methods: Twelve males aged 25 (4) years with a body mass index of 22.4 (2.0) kg/m2 attended two experimental visits in a counterbalanced fashion. The participants consumed a standardized breakfast between 7:00 and 7:30 a.m. and were subjected to smell and taste tests upon arrival at the laboratory (8:30 a.m.). In the EX9:40 visit, the participants performed a 30-min exercise session (70% of maximum oxygen uptake) at 9:40 a.m., followed by a 90-min sedentary break. In EX10:30, the participants first took part in the 90-min sedentary break and then performed the 30-min exercise session at 10:30 a.m. Taste and smell tests were performed again at 11:40 a.m., immediately followed by an ad libitum buffet-style meal. Visual analog scales were used to report appetite sensations during the session and satiety quotients around the lunch. Results: There was no difference in energy intakes between the EX9:40 (596 [302] kcal) and EX10:30 (682 [263] kcal) conditions (p = .459). There was no condition effect for the taste and smell sensations (all ps > .05), appetite sensation, or satiety quotients around the meal (all ps > .05). Conclusion: Exercise timing in the morning had no effect on taste and smell perceptions, appetite sensations, or energy intakes.

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Lore Metz, Laurie Isacco, Kristine Beaulieu, S. Nicole Fearnbach, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos

Background: While the popularity of aquatic physical activities continues to grow among women, the effects on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite control remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of water temperature during aqua-cycling session on EE, rate of perceived exertion, energy intake, appetite sensations, and food reward in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Participants completed three experimental sessions, in the postprandial condition, in a randomized order: a land control session (CON), an aqua-cycling session in 18 °C (EXO18), and an aqua-cycling session in 27 °C (EXO27). The EE, food intake, appetite sensations, and food reward were investigated for each condition. Results: EXO18 induced a significant increase in EE (p < .001) and oxygen consumption (p < .01) compared with EXO27. The carbohydrate oxidation was higher in EXO18 session compared with EXO27 and CON (p < .05 and p < .001, respectively). While fat oxidation was higher in exercise sessions compared with CONT (p < .01), no difference was observed between EXO18 and EXO27. Exercise sessions did not alter absolute energy intake session but induced a decrease in relative energy intake (p < .001) and in hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption compared with CON (p < .001). The authors also show here that cold-water exposure can increase EE while rate of perceived exertion is lower at the end of exercise session compared with same exercise at 27 °C (p < .05).Conclusion: An exposure to a moderately cold-water during aqua-cycling is an efficient strategy to promote increased EE and decreased hunger, which may be effective for energy balance management in healthy premenopausal women.

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Julien Aucouturier, Caroline Ganière, Salomé Aubert, Fabien Riviere, Corinne Praznoczy, Anne Vuillemin, Mark S Tremblay, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

Background:

Many countries publish periodic Report Cards on physical activity for children and youth. This paper presents the results from the first French Report Card providing a systematic synthesis and assessment of the national engagements to facilitate childhood physical activity.

Methods:

A search for nationally representative data on 8 indicators of physical activity was conducted and the data were assessed by an expert panel according to international procedures. Whether children across France are achieving specific benchmarks was rated using an established grading framework [A, B, C, D, F, or INC (incomplete)]. Data were interpreted, grades assigned and detailed in the 2016 Report Card that was produced and disseminated.

Results:

The expert panel awarded the following grades: Overall Physical Activity: INC; Organized Sport Participation: D; Active Transportation: D; Sedentary Behaviors: D; Family and Peers: INC; School: B; Community and the Built Environment: INC; Government Strategies and Investment: INC.

Conclusions:

The grades reveal that efforts must be done to improve youth’s physical activity and that several gaps in the literature still need to be addressed. Collectively the results highlight that children’s physical activity levels are low and that further national supports and investments are needed to promote childhood healthy active living in France.

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Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Caroline Ganière, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Julien Schipman, Benjamin Larras, Corinne Praznoczy, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

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Pauline Manon Genin, Céline Lambert, Benjamin Larras, Bruno Pereira, Jean-François Toussaint, Julien Steven Baker, Angelo Tremblay, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos

Background: The French National Observatory for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors conducted a national survey aiming to evaluate the potential effects of confinement on the population’s physical activity levels and sedentary behaviors. Methods: In close collaboration with the French Ministry of Sports and a selected expert committee, 3 different questionnaires investigating 3 subgroup populations were included in the survey: (1) children, (2) adolescents, and (3) adults. Results: Forty-two percentage of children, 58.7% of adolescents, 36.4% of adults, and 39.2% of older people had reduced physical activity levels. Particularly, active transportation and endurance practices showed a significant decrease, while domestic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility activities increased. Sitting time and screen time increased, respectively, in 36.3% and 62.0% of children, 25.5% and 69.0% in adolescents, 24.6% and 41.0% in adults, and 36.1% and 32.1% in seniors. Conclusion: The COVID-19 confinement period led to important modifications in individual movement behaviors at all ages, particularly favoring decreased physical activity and increased sedentariness. These findings suggest that the authors need to inform and encourage people to maintain and improve their physical activities and to change their sedentary time habits during postconfinement and during the period of a potential future lockdown.

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David Thivel, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Marwa Khammassi, Johanna Roche, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Martine Duclos, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, and Lore Metz

Background: While mental work has been shown to favor overconsumption, the present study compared the effect of a cognitive task alone, followed by acute exercise, or performed on a cycling desk, on short-term food intake and appetite in adults. Methods: A total of 19 normal-weight adults randomly completed: resting session (CON), 30-minute cognitive task (CT), 30-minute cognitive task followed by a 15-minute high-intensity interval exercise bout (CT–EX), and 30-minute cognitive task performed on a cycling desk (CT-CD). Energy expenditure was estimated (heart rate–workload relationship), and energy intake (EI; ad libitum) and appetite (visual analog scales) were assessed. Results: Energy expenditure was higher in CT-EX (P < .001) compared with the other conditions and in CT-CD compared with CON and CT (P < .01). EI was higher in CON (P < .05) and CT-CD compared with CT (P < .01). Relative EI was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and lower in CT-EX compared with CT, CT-CD, and CON (all Ps < .001). Area under the curve desire to eat was higher in CON compared with CT (P < .05) and CT-EX (P < .01). Area under the curve prospective food consumption was higher in CON compared with CT-EX (P < .01). Overall composite appetite score was not different between conditions. Conclusion: While cycling desks are recommended to break up sedentary time, the induced increase in energy expenditure might not be enough to significantly reduce overall short-term relative EI after mental work.

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Julie Masurier, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Stephanie Nicole Fearnbach, Charlotte Cardenoux, Valérie Julian, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie, and David Thivel

There is a growing interest regarding the effect of exercise on appetite and energy intake in youth. While the role of exercise intensity has been a primary focus of study, the effect of exercise duration on subsequent food intake has not been fully examined in obese adolescents. On three separate mornings in a randomly assigned order, obese adolescent girls (n = 20) aged 12–15 years old were asked to perform a rest session (control, CON) or two cycling sessions for 20 (EX20) or 40 min (EX40) set at their ventilatory threshold. Absolute and relative energy intake were measured from an ad libitum lunch meal 30 min after rest or exercise and appetite feelings assessed using visual analogue scales throughout the day. Hunger, satiety, and prospective food consumption were not significantly different between conditions. Absolute energy intake (kcal) did not differ between conditions, while relative energy intake on EX40 (571 ± 381 kcal) was significantly lower than during CON (702 ± 320 kcal; p < .05) and EX20 (736 ± 457 kcal; p < .05). Fat ingestion (in grams) was significantly lower on CON (7.8 ± 3.2 g) compared with EX20 (10.3 ± 4.6 g; p < .01). Protein intake (in grams) was higher on EX20 (37.0 ± 16.6 g) compared with both CON (29.5 ± 11.7 g; p < .01) and EX40 (33.1 ± 10.9 g; p < .05). However, the percentage of total energy derived from each macronutrient was not different between conditions. Obese adolescent girls do not compensate for an acute bout of exercise set at their ventilatory threshold by increasing energy intake, regardless of the exercise duration.

Open access

Pauline M. Genin, Frédéric Dutheil, Benjamin Larras, Yoland Esquirol, Yves Boirie, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, Corinne Praznoczy, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos