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David Kahan and Thomas L. McKenzie

Background:

Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist.

Methods:

We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs.

Results:

Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%).

Conclusions:

Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.

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Thomas M. Zellers and David J. Driscoll

Because it is not known how often and how uniformly exercise testing is used to “unmask” recurrent or persistent coarctation of the aorta, this study was designed to determine (a) the frequency with which exercise testing is used by the clinician to evaluate patients after coarctation repair, and (b) the hemodynamic measures obtained with exercise that are considered to be indicative of significant persistent or recurrent coarctation. Questionnaires were sent to 80 randomly selected pediatric cardiologists; 49 were returned completed. About half of the respondents performed exercise testing (ET) on all of their patients after coarctation repair and 75 % tested at least half. Those who supervised an exercise laboratory used ET for a significantly greater number of their patients. In descending order, rest arm-leg gradient (ALG), maximal exercise systolic blood pressure (MXBP), and postexercise ALG were considered the most important indicators of significant recoarctation. The majority of respondents made decisions based on data from the ET that were consistent with published guidelines.

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Edited by Thomas J. Templin and David C. Griffey

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Thomas W. Rowland, Richard C. McFaul and David A. Burton

Syncope during sports participation may serve as the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease that poses a risk for athletic training and competition. Other causes of syncope (vasovagal, dehydration) during physical activity may be more benign. The athlete who faints during sports deserves a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation that addresses the wide-ranging differential diagnosis involved. The case of a 14-year-old male with two syncopal spells during athletic training is presented to review the components of such a workup and subsequent management implications.

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David B. Klenosky, Thomas J. Templin and Josh A. Troutmam

This paper reports the results of an empirical study that draws on a means-end perspective to examine the factors influencing the school choice decisions of collegiate student athletes. A sample of 27 NCAA Division I collegiate football players were questioned to identify the attributes that differentiated the school they selected from the others they had considered attending. The interviewing technique known as laddering was then used to link the salient attributes of the chosen school to the consequences and personal values important to the athlete. An analysis of the resulting data provided unique insight into the means-end relationships that underlie students' selection of competing athletic programs. A discussion of the study findings outlined the implications of this investigation and the means-end approach for future recruiting and research efforts.

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David R. Lamb, Ann C. Snyder and Thomas S. Baur

This study compared two high carbohydrate (CHO) diets in 14 male runners for effects on muscle glycogen deposition, endurance, and sensations of gastrointestinal discomfort. Muscle glycogen was measured in the vastus lateralis at rest and run time to exhaustion at 75 % VO2max was measured following 3-1/2 days on a 50% CHO diet. After 14 days the subjects consumed a 20% CHO diet and continued training to reduce glycogen. During the next 3-1/2 days, subjects ran less and consumed a 90% CHO diet emphasizing pasta and rice (Pasta, n=7) or lesser amounts of pasta and rice supplemented by a maltodextrin beverage (Supplement, n=7). Glycogen was again measured, followed by a second run to exhaustion. Compared to the 50% CHO diet, Pasta increased muscle glycogen by 27.1 ± 12.2 mmoles/kg muscle (M±SE; p < 0.05) and run time by 15.7±5.9 min; Supplement increased glycogen by 43.2 ± 13.5 mmoles/kg (p < 0.05) and run time by 29.0 ± 7.4 min (p < 0.05). Total glycogen concentrations and run times were not significantly different for Pasta versus Supplement. Subjects reported less gastrointestinal discomfort and greater overall preference for Supplement than for Pasta. Thus, glycogen loading can be accomplished at least as effectively and more comfortably by substituting a maltodextrin drink for some of the pasta and rice in a glycogen loading diet.

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Diane L. Gill, David A. Dzewaltowski and Thomas E. Deeter

The validity of the recently developed Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ), a multidimensional measure of sport achievement orientation, was investigated with both high school and university students. Specifically, we examined the correlations of SOQ scores with other measures of competitiveness and general achievement orientation and we compared the relative abilities of SOQ scores and other achievement measures to discriminate participants and nonpar-ticipants in competitive sports, noncompetitive sports, and nonsport activities. The findings obtained with both high school and university students provided convergent and divergent evidence for the validity of the SOQ. SOQ scores were highly correlated with other competitiveness measures, moderately correlated with general achievement measures, and uncorrelated with competitive anxiety and social desirability. Competitiveness scores were the strongest discriminators between competitive sport participants and nonpar-ticipants, but SOQ scores were weaker discriminators for noncompetitive achievement choices. The findings confirm the value of a multidimensional, sport-specific achievement measure and provide good evidence for the validity of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire.

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David Travis Thomas, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

Purpose:

To examine the effect of yogurt supplementation pre- and postexercise on changes in body composition in overweight women engaged in a resistance-training program.

Methods:

Participants (age = 36.8 ± 4.8 yr) with a body-mass index of 29.1±2.1 kg/m2 were randomized to yogurt supplement (YOG; n = 15) or isoenergetic sucrose beverage (CONT; n = 14) consumed before and after exercise for 16 wk. Participants were also instructed to reduce energy intake daily (–1,046 kJ) during the study. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, waist circumference, and sagittal diameter. Strength was measured with 1-repetition maximum. Dietary recalls were obtained by a multipass approach using Nutrition Data System software. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein-3 were measured with ELISA.

Results:

Significant weight losses of 2.6 ± 4.5 kg (YOG) and 1.2 ± 2.5 kg (CONT) were observed. Total lean weight increased significantly over time in both YOG (0.8 ± 1.2 kg) and CONT (1.1 ± 0.9 kg). Significant reductions in total fat (YOG = 3.4 ± 4.1 kg vs. CONT = 2.3 ± 2.4 kg) were observed over time. Waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and trunk fat decreased significantly over time without group differences. Both groups significantly decreased energy intake while maintaining protein intake. Strength significantly increased over time in both groups. No changes over time or between groups were observed in hormone levels.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that yogurt supplementation offered no added benefit for increasing lean mass when combined with resistance training and modest energy restriction.

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Judith A. Siegel, David N. Camaione and Thomas G. Manfredi

To assess the effects of a group resistance exercise program on prepubescent children, an experimental group of boys (n = 26) and girls (n = 24), with a mean age of 8.4 ± 0.5 years, participated in 12 weeks of school based training. The program consisted of upper body exercise using hand-held weights, stretch tubing, balls, and self-supported movements. A control group of boys (n = 30) and girls (n = 16), mean age 8.6 ± 0.5 years, had a free-play period. Boys were significantly stronger than girls on all initial strength evaluations and were taller and had lesser skinfold sums. ANCOVA was used to evaluate pre/post changes in cable tensiometer elbow flexion and extension, right and left handgrip strength, pull-ups, flexed arm hang, sit-ups, sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition parameters. Following the training period, significantly greater gains were made by the experimental group for right handgrip, flexed arm hang, pull-ups, and flexibility. Greater decreases in sum of skinfolds were also found. Training responses of boys and girls were similar. It was concluded that a group strength training program can be an effective means of increasing fitness levels and improving body composition in both boys and girls of this age.