Hermann Rieder, Kevin Spink, and David Yukelson
David Yukelson, Robert Weinberg, and Allen Jackson
The purpose of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable group cohesion instrument that measures both task-related and social-related forces that are presumed to exist in interacting sport groups. Male and female intercollegiate basketball players (N = 196) completed a 41-item sport cohesion instrument. Results from two different factor analytical techniques revealed four robust common factors which accounted for greater than 80% of the variance of the total common factor structure. The four derived common factors were labeled Attraction to the Group, Unity of Purpose, Quality of Teamwork, and Valued Roles. In addition, the internal consistency of the adjusted 22-item sport cohesion instrument was found to be high, yielding a .93 alpha reliability coefficient. The findings suggest that group cohesion in intercollegiate basketball teams is multidimensional in nature, consisting of common goals, valued roles, teamwork that is complimentary to the goals the group is striving to achieve, and feelings of satisfaction and/or identification with group membership.
Robert S. Weinberg, David Yukelson, and Allen Jackson
The present investigation was designed to extend Weinberg, Gould, and Jackson's (1979) efficacy-performance results to a back-to-back competitive situation as well as to determine whether performance would be affected by the solicitation of public vs. private expectancy statements. Subjects (56 males and 56 females) were randomly assigned to either a high or low self-efficacy condition and either stated their expectancy of success publicly or privately in a 2 × 2 × 2 (sex × self-efficacy × publiclprivate) factorial design. Self-efficacy was manipulated by having subjects compete against a confederate on a muscular leg-endurance task in which the confederate was said to be either a varsity track athlete who exhibited higher performance on a related task (low self-efficacy), or an individual who had a knee injury and exhibited poorer performance on a related task (high self-efficacy). The results supported self-efficacy predictions, and thus extended Weinberg et al.'s findings to a back-to-back competitive situation. The public/private manipulation produced no significant performance effects. In addition, the sex by self-efficacy interaction indicated that the self-efficacy main effect was due primarily to high-efficacy males extending their legs significantly longer than low-efficacy males. These results are discussed in terms of the differing patterns of sex-role socialization.
Damon Burton, David Yukelson, Robert Weinberg, and Daniel Weigand
The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify how frequently and effectively collegiate athletes set goals and goal strategies and assess differences in goal practices across effectiveness groups. Participants were 321 male and 249 female college athletes participating in 18 sports at four universities, who completed the Collegiate Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire. Descriptive results indicated that most athletes set goals but rated them as only moderately effective. MANOVA findings revealed that highly effective goal setters used all types of goals and implementation strategies more frequently and effectively than their less-effective counterparts. Discriminant analysis results revealed that the frequency of product-related goals and goal implementation strategy usage and the effectiveness of process-related goals best discriminated between effectiveness groups. Discussion focuses on the need to educate practitioners about the value of goals and how to use them most effectively.
Robert Weinberg, Damon Burton, David Yukelson, and Dan Weigand
The purpose of the present investigation was to explore athletes’ responses regarding the frequency, effectiveness, and importance of different types of goals to enhance their performance. Subjects (N = 678) were collegiate athletes at three NCAA Division I schools from different regions of the United States. Each athlete completed an extensive questionnaire detailing his or her perceptions regarding the use and effectiveness of a number of different goal-setting strategies. Descriptive results revealed that virtually all athletes practiced some type of goal setting to help enhance performance and that they found their goals to be moderately to highly effective. Athletes also reported that improving overall performance, winning, and having fun were their three most important goals. Many significant differences were found when comparing groups. For example, although females generally set more performance goals than males, males set more outcome goals than females. Future directions for research are offered including studying developmental differences and barriers/facilitators to achieving goals.
Joan L. Duda, Maureen R. Weiss, and David Yukelson
David Yukelson, Robert S. Weinberg, and Stephen West Allen Jackson
The purpose of this investigation was to test Kukla's attributional theory of performance and to address the mediating link between causal attribution and subsequent action in a competitive motor task. Two experiments were conducted: the first was designed to determine the effect of perceived task difficulty and attributional instructions on the ball-tossing performance of high achievers while competing against a standard of excellence. Results indicated that high achievers performed with greater intensity when receiving an effort rather than ability-oriented instructional set and when they perceive themselves to be behind a normative score of their classmates. To refine and clarify results found in Experiment 1, low as well as high achievers were added to the second study and were placed in face-to-face competition instead of a competition against a standard of excellence. Results from the performance data in Experiment 2 supported Kukla's theory in that high achievers performed best when they perceived themselves to be behind an opponent's score midway through the experiment, whereas low achievers performed best when they perceived themselves to be ahead. Results from the cognitive assessment procedure, however, failed to support the performance findings. Implications for the viability of Kukla's attributional theory of performance and problems related to the assessment of cognitive states are discussed.
Robert S. Weinberg, Daniel Gould, David Yukelson, and Allen Jackson
This investigation was designed to determine the effects of preexisting and manipulated self-efficacy on competitive motor performance. Male (n = 46) and female (n = 46) subjects were classified as being high or low in preexisting self-efficacy before the experiment began and were randomly assigned to either a high- or low-manipulated self-efficacy condition in a 2 × 2 × 2 (sex by self-efficacy by manipulated efficacy) design. Efficacy was manipulated by having subjects compete against a confederate on a muscular leg-endurance task where the confederate was said to be either a varsity track athlete (low-manipulated self-efficacy) or an individual who had had knee surgery (high-manipulated self-efficacy). To create aversive consequences, the experiment was rigged so that subjects lost in competition on the two muscular leg endurance task trials they performed. Both preexisting and manipulated self-efficacy were found to significantly influence performance, with preexisting self-efficacy influencing performance only on Trial 1 and manipulated self-efficacy only on Trial 2. The findings support Bandura's (1977) theory of self-efficacy and are discussed in terms of the permeability of initial efficacy states.
Diane M. Wiese, Maureen R. Weiss, and David P. Yukelson
Although athletic injury is common in sport, little is documented about the application of psychological principles to injury rehabilitation. This study surveyed athletic trainers on the use of psychological strategies with injured athletes. Athletic trainers (N = 115) responded to Likert rating scales on athlete characteristics, efficacy of psychological strategies, and perceived importance of trainer knowledge about psychological strategies. Results revealed that trainers distinguished between athletes coping most versus least successfully with injury on characteristics of willingness to listen, positive attitude, intrinsic motivation, and willingness to learn about the injury and rehabilitation techniques. Trainers rated effective psychological techniques for facilitating athlete recovery as good interpersonal communication skills, positive reinforcement, coach support, and keeping the athlete involved with the team. Knowledge about using a positive communication style, strategies for setting realistic goals, methods for encouraging positive self-thoughts, and understanding individual motivation were rated as most important.