Nutraceuticals may induce doping infractions through contamination of the product itself or their ingestion might be metabolized within the body to create a positive doping control test. We tested this possibility using a commercially available, proprietary ginseng root extract (Cold-FX®, CV Technologies Inc., Edmonton, AB). After athletes ingested Cold-FX© for 28 d at 400 mg/d, urine samples were collected and processed under strict IOC doping control guidelines and then analyzed for a full screen of IOC banned/restricted substances by an IOC-approved laboratory. There were no positive tests for any banned substances in any of the subjects. Our study demonstrates that ingestion of Cold-FX® for 28 d at 400 mg/d does not represent a doping concern for athletes. Carefully controlled clinical studies like this one are necessary to provide the athlete, the nutraceutical industry and IOC regulatory bodies with information to avoid inadvertent exposure to banned/restricted or potentially unhealthy substances.
Danny P. Goel, Jonathan D. Geiger, Jacqueline J. Shan, Dean Kriellaars and Grant N. Pierce
Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley and Patrice Aubertin
Objective: To examine the impact of circus arts instruction in physical education (PE) on the physical literacy of children in Grades 4 and 5. Methods: A clustered, quasi-experimental design was used comparing children in schools with circus arts instruction in physical education (n = 101) with children in socioeconomic status-matched schools using standard PE instruction (n = 110). Physical literacy assessments performed at the beginning and end of one semester using the Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth tools. Results: Significant improvements in motor competence for both groups; endpoint differences favored the circus arts instruction in physical education schools for 15 of 18 movement skills for Grade 5 and 7 of 18 skills for Grade 4 (p < .05), with corresponding increases in children’s confidence and comprehension of movement terminology, as well as active participation. The gap in motor competence between girls and boys in the circus arts instruction in physical education schools was smaller than in standard PE schools. Conclusions: Circus arts instruction enriched PE can effectively aid in the development of physical literacy in children with greater gender equity.