The study objective was to determine the magnitude and frequency of head impacts in NCAA Division III soccer athletes based on player position and type of play (offense, defense, transition). Across player position, male and female soccer defenders sustained the most head impacts (males IR = 18.89, 95% CI = 16.89–20.89; females IR = 8.45, 95% CI = 7.25–9.64; IRR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.87–2.67). The study revealed a nonstatistically significant interaction between sex, player position, and type of play for both linear (p = .42) and rotational accelerations (p = .16). Defenders sustained the majority of the head impacts in the study sample, suggesting preventative initiatives should be focused on back row players.
Katelyn M. Nelson, Elizabeth H.K. Daidone, Katherine M. Breedlove, Debbie A. Bradney and Thomas G. Bowman
Lydia R. Vollavanh, Kathleen M. O’Day, Elizabeth M. Koehling, James M. May, Katherine M. Breedlove, Evan L. Breedlove, Eric A. Nauman, Debbie A. Bradney, J. Eric Goff and Thomas G. Bowman
Quantifying head impacts is a vital component to understanding and preventing head trauma in sport. Our objective was to establish the frequency and magnitude of head impact mechanisms in men’s lacrosse athletes. Eleven male lacrosse athletes wore xPatch sensors during activity. Video footage of practices and games was analyzed to verify impacts and code them with impact mechanisms. The authors calculated incidence rates (IRs) per 1000 exposures with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used multivariate analysis of variances to compare the linear (g) and rotational (rad/s2) accelerations between mechanisms. A total of 167 head impacts were successfully verified and coded with a mechanism using video footage during 542 total exposures. The highest IR was head to body (IR = 118.08; 95% CI, 89.15–147.01), and the lowest was head to ball (IR = 3.69; 95% CI, 0–8.80) (incidence rate ratio = 32.00; 95% CI, 67.83–130.73). Analysis indicated that impact mechanism failed to significantly alter the combined dependent variables (multivariate F 10,306 = 1.79, P = .06, η 2 = .06, 1−β = 0.83). While head to head, body to head, and stick to head mechanisms are penalty-inducing offenses in men’s lacrosse, head to ground, head to ball, and combination impacts have similar head accelerations. If penalties and rules are created to protect players from traumatic head injury, the authors recommend stricter enforcement.