Three studies investigated the reliability and construct validity of the Exercise Thoughts Questionnaire (ETQ), an instrument developed to assess the frequency with which individuals have thoughts involving reasons or excuses for not exercising at the present time. Such cognitions are hypothesized to interfere with exercise behavior. Study 1 involved 164 college women; Study 2, 209 undergraduates; and Study 3, 196 undergraduates. Analyses revealed that the ETQ has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. ETQ scores related in theoretically meaningful ways to exercise intentions, previous exercise experience, the number of days participants considered exercising but did not actually exercise, and both concurrent and prospective self-reports of exercise behavior. Exploratory analyses revealed that women reported a higher frequency of thoughts involving reasons or excuses for not exercising than men and that students who participated in collegiate, intramural, or club sports having required practices reported a lower frequency of such thoughts.
Deborah Kendzierski and Wendy Johnson
Deborah Kendzierski and Mara S. Morganstein
Structural equation modeling was used to test an extended version of the Kendzierski, Furr, and Schiavoni (1998) Physical Activity Self-Definition Model. A revised model using data from 622 runners fit the data well. Cross-validation indices supported the revised model, and this model also provided a good fit to data from 397 cyclists. Partial invariance was found across activities. In both samples, perceived commitment and perceived ability had direct effects on self-definition, and perceived wanting, perceived trying, and enjoyment had indirect effects. The contribution of perceived ability to self-definition did not differ across activities. Implications concerning the original model, indirect effects, skill salience, and the role of context in self-definition are discussed.
Deborah Kendzierski and Kenneth J. DeCarlo
Two studies examined the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). In Study 1, each subject rode an exercise bicycle under control and external focus conditions. The PACES had high internal consistency in both conditions. As predicted, subjects reported enjoying the exercise more, as measured by the PACES, in the external focus condition. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation in the control condition between subjects' PACES scores and their scores on a measure of boredom proneness. In Study 2, each subject rode an exercise bicycle and jogged on a minitrampoline in separate sessions; each then chose one of these activities for their third session. Again, the PACES had high internal consistency. And, as predicted, there was a significant relationship between subjects' PACES ratings (completed after each activity) and their choices of activity. Test-retest reliability was high for jogging and moderate for bicycling. These studies provide preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the PACES.
Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr., and Jennifer Schiavoni
Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.