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An Involvement Profile of Division I Women’s Basketball Spectators

Deborah L. Kerstetter and Georgia M. Kovich

The primary purpose of this study was to substantiate the multidimensionality of the involvement construct in a college sport context as measured · by the Consumer Involvement Profile (IP) instrument. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between individual spectators' sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and involvement. A principal axis factor analysis, using an oblique rotation, determined that two involvement dimensions with eigenvalues greater than 1.OO and accounting for 63% of the variance existed. MÁNOVA and ÁNOVA procedures revealed a significant relationship (.05 level using the Scheffe criterion) between involvement and five independent variables. The multidimensional nature of the involvement construct was substantiated but did not duplicate earlier work by numerous authors. The relationships documented via the ANOVA procedure also challenged earlier work. Further research using the IP instrument with sports spectators would enhance our understanding of their involvement profile.

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Manipulating Consumer Price Expectations for a 10K Road Race

Gerard T. Kyle, Deborah L. Kerstetter, and Frank B. Guadagnolo

Understanding consumers' response to price has become an important issue for managers of public sport and leisure services as they shift their dependence on revenue from government sources to user fees. Employing an experimental design, we manipulated participants' price expectations for the race entry fee of a 10K road race. Subjects were divided into six groups and provided with information relating to a different service outcome. Subsequent price expectations were elicited on the basis of the information provided in each message. Results indicated that messages including the cost of service provision information, information suggesting the loss of services, and information suggesting personal loss, significantly raised subjects' price expectations. One practical implication of these findings is that managers of public sport and leisure services considering price increases for their services should introduce them by outlining the purpose and the costs and benefits associated with the increase. Further, implementing effective communication strategies regarding price increases may significantly increase consumers' acceptance of an otherwise undesirable management decision.

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Global Self-Regulation and Outcome Expectations: Influences on Constraint Self-Regulation and Physical Activity

Julie S. Son, Deborah L. Kerstetter, Andrew J. Mowen, and Laura L. Payne

There is a dearth of research conducted on the possible relationship between the global self-regulatory process of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) and leisure-time physical activity. Even less is known about SOC’s relationship to other social-cognitive factors known to influence physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the relationships between global self-regulation, constraint self-regulation, outcome expectations, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle-aged and older adults (N = 271). One of the objectives was to test the interactive effect of global self-regulation and outcome expectations on constraint self-regulation. Another objective was to test the interactive effect of global self-regulation and outcome expectations on multiple measures of leisure-time physical activity. The authors found significant interactions between global self-regulation and outcome expectations for constraint self-regulation and duration of leisure-time physical activity. They discuss these results in terms of their implications for health-promotion programs to increase the leisure-time physical activity of people 50 years of age and older.