This study examined sport participation motives of 147 Special Olympics athletes ages 21 to 70 years. Athletes completed a Sport Motivation Questionnaire (SMQ). No significant differences in participation motives were found for gender, age, race, or sport. Special Olympics athletes participate to win ribbons and medals, play with other people, get exercise, do something they’re good at, and have fun. Consistent with Nicholls’ achievement motivation theory, Special Olympics athletes participate primarily for task oriented and social integrative reasons rather than for ego oriented reasons. For Special Olympic athletes, optimal motivation results in a task oriented environment where coaches provide time for fun, facilitate opportunities for fitness, provide time to be with friends, and emphasize effort and improvement.
Deborah R. Shapiro
Joonkoo Yun and Deborah R. Shapiro
This study examined the psychometric properties of Ulrich’s (1988) Actual Physical Competence Scale for children with mental retardation. A total of 139 children with MR, 7 to 13 years of age participated. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a multidimensional model of skill assessment captures the motor performance of those with MR more accurately than a unidimensional model. Indices of goodness of fit for the multidimensional model were GFI = .91, RMSEA = .09, (χ2/df) = 2.15, and CFI = .93. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the total test battery was ICC = .91 and α = .62, respectively. When evaluating movement skills of children with mental retardation, a multidimensional model incorporating both locomotor and object control skills is recommended.
Deborah R. Shapiro and Dale A. Ulrich
The purpose was to examine the reference groups used by children with and without learning disabilities (LD), ages 10-13 years, when judging perceived physical competence in three contexts (in physical education class, during outdoor school recess, and at home). Participants, 30 students with LD and 30 without LD, completed the athletic competence subscale from the Self-Perception Profile for Learning Disabled Students (SPPLD; Renick & Harter, 1988) and two social comparison questionnaires in each activity context. Differences in the percentage of students citing the various reference groups across context was not statistically significant. Observations of responses indicate participants relied primarily on classmates, self-comparison, and family members to judge their physical competence. These results suggest that, while students with and without LD tend to compare themselves with their general education classmates, their reliance on eight different social comparison groups from which to judge physical competence varies with context.
Deborah R. Shapiro and Gail M. Dummer
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived and actual basketball competence for 25 adolescent males, ages 12 to 15, with mild mental retardation. Participants completed a Pictorial Scale of Perceived Basketball Competence and a modified version of the AAHPER Basketball Skills Test for Boys. Consistent with Harter’s (1978) theory of perceived competence, a positive relationship was found between perceived and actual basketball competence for the individual skills of push pass for accuracy (r s = .38, p = .03), jump and reach (r s = .42, p = .02), speed dribble (r s = .21, p = .16), and free-throw shooting (r s = .37, p = .03), and for the combined battery of four skills (r s = .46, p = .01). Issues relating to cognitive development of participants, testing methodology, statistical analysis techniques, and task characteristics serve as possible explanations for the results of this investigation.
Deborah R. Shapiro and Brenda G. Pitts
As the field of sport business management develops, it is critical to assess its literature. A content analysis of 34 sport business management journals between 2002 to 2012 was conducted relative to sports, physical activity, recreation, and leisure for individuals with disabilities. Journals were selected based on their alignment with sport management curriculum standards. Results show that of the 5,443 articles reviewed in this study, merely 89, or .016%, pertained to disability sport, leisure, recreation, or physical activity. Information insufficiency was found across all sport management curriculum domains. Similarities and differences are discussed relative to other content analyses conducted in sport management and disability sport. Results provide direction for future scholarship and advancement of studies in disability sport in sport business management.
Deborah R. Shapiro and Dale A. Ulrich
This study examined the relationship between components of Eccles’ (Eccles et al., 1983) expectancy-value model and perceptions of physical competence of children with and without learning disabilities (LD) across three physical activity contexts (physical education class, outdoor school recess, and at home). Participants, 60 children with and without LD between 10 and 13 years, completed the Modified Pictorial Scale of Perceived Physical Competence (Ulrich & Collier, 1990) and an expectancy-value questionnaire measuring perceived importance, usefulness, enjoyment, and gender orientation of selected motor skills. Gender differences in perceptions of physical competence were found in recess and home settings. No significant group differences were observed in perceptions of physical competence. Expectancy-value subscales contributed differently to understanding competence judgments of boys and girls across context. Results are discussed with implications for improving self-concept and expectancy-value among girls toward sport and physical activity.
Deborah R. Shapiro and Jeffrey J. Martin
The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N = 36, M age = 16.11, SD age = 2.8) completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. Participants reported mostly positive perceptions of self-esteem, global physical self-concept, endurance, body fat, sport competence, strength, flexibility, and physical activity (Ms ranging from 3.9 to 5.6 out of 6). Correlations indicated a number of significant relationships among self-esteem and reported PA and various dimensions of physical self-concept. Using physical self-concept, strength, endurance, and flexibility in the first regression equation and sport competence and endurance simultaneously in the second equation, 47 and 31% of the variance was accounted for in self-esteem and reported PA, respectively. The findings support the value of examining multidimensional physical self-concept as different aspects of the physical self appear to have different influences on reported PA engagement versus self-esteem.