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Andrew Hawkins, Robert L. Wiegand, and Dennis K. Landin

Research indicates that feedback given to teacher trainees is often vague and incomplete. Frequently the feedback fails to provide specific strategies designed to improve subsequent teaching performances. This investigation developed a taxonomy of feedback strategies based on the content of data-based feedback provided by teacher educators to teacher trainees in peer teaching. Strategies were categorized to correspond with specific data situations frequently observed in the lessons. A discussion of the rationale for the strategies, coupled with descriptive data on the frequency of strategy selection, revealed much about the interpretive model that teacher educators may superimpose on data. Additional study on the empirical validation of the taxonomy is warranted subsequent to this descriptive/logical point of departure.

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Dennis K. Landin, Andrew Hawkins, and Robert L. Wiegand

This investigation sought to validate a taxonomy of strategies used in formulating the feedback supplied to teacher trainees involved in the peer teaching segment of a secondary methods class. Lesson deficiencies were diagnosed through analysis of student and teacher process behavior data. Certain student and teacher response classes were selected for each trainee as dependent variables (DVs) and targeted for improvement. Goals were set for each DV and strategies for improvement were suggested by teacher educators (TEs). These strategies, selected from a taxonomy developed in previous work (Hawkins, Wiegand, & Landin, 1985), served as independent variables (IVs). A modified changing criterion design was employed to evaluate the data. Strategy effectiveness was determined by analyzing the degree to which trainees met data-based goals for the targeted response classes. Results indicated that several strategies seemed useful for a wide variety of activities. Also indicated by the results is the need for teacher trainers to be better prepared to handle large classes.

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Edward P. Hebert, Dennis Landin, and Melinda A. Solmon

A major focus of research on teaching and learning for the past decade has been directed toward developing an understanding of student behaviors and thought processes related to achievement. Using a mediational-processes approach, researchers have identified engagement variables that predict skill learning gains, most notably the quality and quantity of practice and student self-perceptions of efficacy and competence. We sought to extend this correlational research by examining how one aspect of instruction, task progressions, influenced students’ practice quality and task-related cognition. University students enrolled in tennis classes were taught and practiced the serve under one of three conditions, two characterized by easy-to-difficult task sequences, and the third involving practice of the criterion task. Data were collected on students’ practice trials and three task-related cognitions: motivation, self-efficacy, and perception of success. The results indicated student practice and task-related thoughts varied according to entry skill level and the condition under which they practiced. Instructional conditions involving easy-to-difficult progressions resulted in more successful and appropriate practice trials and enhanced student self-efficacy and motivation. These findings parallel those previously reported on the impact of student ability on practice quality and add to an understanding of how instructional conditions affect what students think and do in physical education class contexts.

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Madge H. Ashy, Amelia M. Lee, and Dennis K. Landin

This study examined the relationship between the total number of practice trials and practice trials using correct technique and achievement in a soccer kick-up skill. Eight preservice physical education teachers taught two lessons to 10 fourth-grade students; upon completion of the instructional periods the students were posttested on the soccer skill. Each class was videotaped, and the entire lesson for each day was coded for each student using an event-recording system. Findings indicated moderately high significant relationships between practice using correct technique and student achievement.

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Amelia M. Lee, Dennis K. Landin, and Jo A. Carter

Thirty fourth-grade students were provided two 30-min lessons on the tennis forehand ground stroke. The students and the teacher were videotaped, and, following each lesson, the students were interviewed using a stimulated-recall procedure. Frequency measures of successful practice trials were also coded for each student during each practice session. Analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between skill-related thoughts and successful performance during class. The findings support the notion that student thoughts are important mediators between instruction and student response patterns.