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Social Influence, Physical Activity, and Social Cognitions Among Adults With Physical Disability: A Meta-Analysis

Jessie N. Stapleton, Diane E. Mack, and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude of the relationship between social influence and both PA behavior and PA-related social cognitions among samples of adults with physical disabilities, including those with chronic conditions that can lead to a physical disability. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies involving adults with physical disability, a measure of social influence, and a measure of PA behavior or PA-related social cognitions. A total of 27 studies with 4,768 participants yielded 47 effect sizes to be included for meta-analysis. Significant, small- to medium-sized relationships were identified between social influence and PA behavior, and social influence and PA-related social cognitions. These relationships suggest that social factors positively associate with physical-activity-related social cognitions and should be targeted when promoting physical activity behavior change among adults with a physical disability.

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Application of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Exercise Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

Heather A. Hausenblas, Albert V. Carron, and Diane E. Mack

The primary purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to statistically examine the utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the explanation and prediction of exercise behavior. The results showed that the effect size for the relationships (a) between intention and exercise behavior, attitude and intention, attitude and exercise behavior, perceived behavioral control and intention, and perceived behavioral control and exercise behavior was large; (b) between subjective norm and intention was moderate; and (c) between subjective norm and exercise behavior was zero-order. The results also supported the conclusions that (a) TPB is superior to TRA in accounting for exercise behavior, (b) there is no differences in the ability to predict exercise behavior from proximal and distal measures of intention, and (c) expectation is a better predictor of exercise behavior than intention.

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Healthy Campus 2010: Physical Activity Trends and the Role Information Provision

Diane E. Mack, Philip M. Wilson, Virginia Lightheart, Kristin Oster, and Katie E. Gunnell


The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the frequency and type of self-reported physical activity behavior in postsecondary students with reference to Healthy Campus 2010 objectives. The secondary purpose was to explore the role of information provision in terms of promoting physical activity behavior in postsecondary students.


Postsecondary students were assessed (N = 127360). Employing a trend survey design, the frequency and type of physical activity behavior was assessed along with physical activity/fitness information provision across a five year period between 2000 to 2004.


In 2004, respondents meeting Healthy Campus 2010 objectives for self-reported moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 42.20% (95% CI = 41.75 to 42.65) and 48.60% (95% CI = 48.14 to 49.06) for strength (STRENGTH) training behavior. Progress quotients demonstrated that 12.93% and 7.87% of target objective for MVPA and STRENGTH respectively had been achieved from baseline. Those who received information reported engaging in more frequent physical activity behavior compared with those who did not (P < .001).


Results suggest the need for continued commitment to increasing physical activity behavior. The provision of physical activity/fitness information may be one mechanism through which this can be achieved.

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Reporting of Adverse Events in Muscle Strengthening Interventions in Youth: A Systematic Review

Diane E. Mack, Daniel Anzovino, Malcolm Sanderson, Raffy Dotan, and Bareket Falk

Clear definition, identification, and reporting of adverse event (AE) monitoring during training interventions are essential for decision making regarding the safety of training and testing in youths. Purpose: To document the extent to which AEs, resulting from intervention studies targeting muscle strengthening training (MST) in youth, are reported by researchers. Methods: Electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) were searched for English peer-reviewed articles published before April 2018. Inclusion criteria were: (1) average age <16 years, (2) use of MST, (3) statement(s) linked to the presence/absence of AEs, and (4) randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs. Risk of reporting bias for AEs followed recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: One hundred and ninety-one full-text articles were screened. One hundred and thirty met all MST criteria, out of which only 44 (33.8%; n = 1278, age = 12.1 [1.1] y) included a statement as to the presence/absence of adverse events. The 86 other studies (66.2%) included no such statement. Of the reporting 44 studies, 18 (40.1%) indicated one or more adverse events. Of the 93 reported adverse events, 55 (59.1%) were linked to training or testing. Conclusions: Most MST studies in youth do not report presence/absence of adverse events, and when reported, adverse events are not well defined.

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Exploring Self-Compassion and Eudaimonic Well-Being in Young Women Athletes

Leah J. Ferguson, Kent C. Kowalski, Diane E. Mack, and Catherine M. Sabiston

Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one’s potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being.

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Stable or Fluid? An Investigation Into Female Student Athlete Basketball Players’ Well-Being

Allison Columbus, Diane E. Mack, Philip M. Wilson, and Nicole J. Chimera

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in female student athlete basketball players’ well-being over time. Eleven female student athlete basketball players completed the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale—Short Form (WEMWBS-SF) every week for 22 consecutive weeks. Differences in well-being (p = .027; η p 2 = .25 ) were found across time with the magnitude of weekly changes in WEMWBS-SF scores ranging between trivial and large. Magnitude-based differences highlighted individual variability, with five (45.45%) athletes very likely reporting increased well-being over time. It is evident that the well-being of female student athletes could be improved given the interpretation of aggregate scores, combined with joint consideration of the individual trajectories, reported in this study. Future work examining environmental factors with logical and practical links to well-being seems necessary to support female student athletes.

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The Role of Body-Related Self-Conscious Emotions in Motivating Women’s Physical Activity

Catherine M. Sabiston, Jennifer Brunet, Kent C. Kowalski, Philip M. Wilson, Diane E. Mack, and Peter R. E. Crocker

The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R 2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.