The aims of this tutorial are three-fold: (a) to clarify the meaning of variability measurement in personality and social psychology, (b) to demonstrate the relevance of and the need for time series analysis in investigations into the dynamics of psychological phenomena, and (c) to provide specific methods to analyze time series. This paper first presents a step-by-step description of univariate Auto-Regressive-Integrated-Moving-average (ARIMA) procedures, which are useful tools for building iterative models from empirical time series. We then develop two empirical examples in detail, based on the analysis of self-esteem and behavioral data. These examples allow us to present the two most often used models.
Marina Fortes, Grégory Ninot and Didier Delignières
Kjerstin Torre, Ramesh Balasubramaniam and Didier Delignières
We analyzed serial dependencies in periods and asynchronies collected during oscillations performed in synchrony with a metronome. Results showed that asynchronies contain 1/f fluctuations, and the series of periods contain antipersistent dependence. The analysis of the phase portrait revealed a specific asymmetry induced by synchronization. We propose a hybrid limit cycle model including a cycle-dependent stiffness parameter provided with fractal properties, and a parametric driving function based on velocity. This model accounts for most experimentally evidenced statistical features, including serial dependence and limit cycle dynamics. We discuss the results and modeling choices within the framework of event-based and emergent timing.
Grégory Ninot, Jean Bilard, Didier Delignières and Michel Sokolowski
The purpose was to examine the effects of type of program (integrated vs. segregated) and type of sport (basketball vs. swimming) on sport skills, four domains of perceived competence, and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with mental retardation (MR) divided equally into six groups: (a) segregated basketball, (b) integrated basketball, (c) segregated swimming, (d) integrated swimming, (e) adapted physical activity (APA), (f) sedentary. The experimental treatment was 8 months long. We administrated sport skill tests and Harter’s (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children four times to determine changes in sport skill, perceived competence, and general self-worth. Results indicated (a) significant improvement in skill for all sports groups, (b) no changes in perceived social acceptance and physical appearance, (c) significantly lower perceived athletic competence for the integrated basketball group compared to the sedentary group, (d) significantly lower perceived conduct for the basketball groups compared to the APA and sedentary groups, (e) and no significant changes in general self-worth.
Christophe Gernigon, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Didier Delignières and Grégory Ninot
Based on the dynamical systems perspective, the present study aimed to explore how states of involvement toward mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals (Elliot & Church, 1997) flow, are interrelated, and are activated during a practice judo combat. Using a retrospective video recall method, two male national level judo competitors expressed on a computer their moment-to-moment level of involvement toward each goal. Self-confrontation interviews also based on the video were immediately conducted. Analyses of variance revealed differences in levels of each goal between periods of the combat. Windowed cross-correlation analyses showed that the patterns of relationships between the time series of the different goals considered two-by-two included either high positive, high negative, or zero correlations, depending on the moment. Qualitative data analyses supported these findings and suggested that goal involvement states emerged and fluctuated according to the ecological constraints of the situation, such as the initial contextual conditions and the course of action.