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Jochen Klenk, Gisela Büchele, Ulrich Lindemann, Sabrina Kaufmann, Raphael Peter, Roman Laszlo, Susanne Kobel, and Dietrich Rothenbacher

The aim of this study was to assess concurrent validity between activPAL and activPAL3 accelerometers in a sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults ≥ 65 years. Physical activity (PA) was measured simultaneously with activPAL and activPAL3 while performing scripted activities. The level of agreement between both devices was calculated for sitting/lying, standing, and walking. In addition, PA was measured over one week using activPAL to estimate the expected agreement with activPAL3 in real life. Overall agreement between activPAL and activPAL3 was 97%. Compared with activPAL, the largest disagreement was seen for standing, with 5% categorized as walking by activPAL3. For walking and sitting/lying, the disagreement was 2%, respectively. The expected daily differences between activPAL3 and activPAL were +15.0 min (95% CI: 11.3ߝ18.8) for walking and +29.5 min (95% CI: 6.2–52.7) for standing. ActivPAL and activPAL3 showed good agreement in older adults. However, if using these devices interchangeably, observed differences might still bias results.

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A. Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jochen Klenk, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Michael D. Denkinger, Kilian Rapp, and for the ActiFE Study Group

Time spent out-of-home can increase physical activity (PA) levels. However, the association between the purpose for leaving home and the mode of transport on time out-of-home and PA are not straightforward. In a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years), daily walking duration was measured prospectively over 1 week using body-fixed sensors and time-out-of-home questionnaires. Data from 1,277 participants yielded 6,500 full days for analysis. The following statistically significant associations were seen: public transport use increased the time spent out-of-home by 88 min and daily walking duration by 16 min. Social contacts or the use of a car increased the time out-of-home, but decreased PA. Shopping or “going by foot” decreased the time spent out-of-home by 19 and 62 min, respectively, while both increased the daily walking duration by 5 min. The association between time out-of-home and PA (daily walking duration) is strongly dependent on the activity and mode of transport.

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Dietrich Rothenbacher, Dhayana Dallmeier, Michael D. Denkinger, Bernhard O. Boehm, Wolfgang Koenig, Jochen Klenk, and ActiFE Study Group

Besides its known function as a transport protein for testosterone and other steroid hormones, sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) is a biomarker associated with many adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity with SHBG serum levels in older adults. The physical activity and SHBG values for 1,259 older adults (43.4% female; 56.6% male) with a mean age of 75.6 ± 6.5 years were included in the analysis. The average daily walking duration was 104.2 ± 40.4 (mean ± SD) min. A positive dose–response relationship of daily walking duration with quartiles of SHBG was seen after adjustment for age, sex, history of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, smoking, γ-glutamyl transferase, and C-reactive protein (p for trend = .010). However, this relationship disappeared after adjustment for body mass index (p for trend = .977). Body mass index seems to be an important determinant of SHBG and a possible confounding factor in the relationship of physical activity and SHBG.

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Mark A. Tully, Ilona I. McMullan, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson, Laura Coll-Planas, Manuela Deidda, Paolo Caserotti, Dietrich Rothenbacher, and on behalf of the SITLESS group

Research has found that social relationships are central to the health and well-being of an aging population. Evidence exploring the association between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with social isolation and loneliness is limited. This study uses objectively measured PA and SB (ActiGraph®) and self-reported measures of loneliness (the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale) and social engagement (the Lubben Social Network Scale) from the SITLESS study, a European-wide study of community-dwelling older adults. Social isolation was associated with SB where higher levels of SB were associated with an increase in the level of social isolation, controlling for age, sex, living arrangements, employment status, body mass index, educational background, marital status, and self-reported general health. In contrast, PA was not associated with social isolation, and neither SB nor PA was a statistically significant predictor of loneliness. SB may be linked to social isolation in older adults, but PA and SB are not necessarily linked to loneliness in older community-dwelling adults.