A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.
Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James
Hyungil Harry Kwon, Do young Pyun and May Kim
The objective of the study was to see whether a teacher-coach exhibits different types of leadership behavior when s/he teaches a PE class and coaches a group of athletes. The participants in this study were 17–18 year old second-year preuniversity students from two local junior colleges in Singapore. A total of 159 students of mixed gender participated, including 80 PE students and 79 student-athletes from floorball, canoeing, and shooting teams. All of the 159 students were taught or coached by three (one male and two female) PE teachers, who performed the dual roles of a PE teacher-coach in the school. The data collection instrument used in this study was the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) measuring five leadership behaviors. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that democratic decision making accounted for most of the differences between the PE students’ and student-athletes’ perceived leadership behavior of their teacher-coaches; the student-athletes perceived their coaches to provide training and instruction more than did the PE students. In addition to training and instruction, the student-athletes perceived more positive feedback given to them than did the PE students. For decision making style, students in PE class perceived more democratic decision making than athletes in school teams. The social support subscale did not show statistically significant group difference.