The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education curriculum from the teachers’ perspective. Elementary and secondary physical education teachers (N=60) completed a questionnaire that assessed their level of agreement on each of four statements associated with 12 commonly held goals for physical education. For each goal, teachers assessed the following areas using a 5-point Likert scale: their personal commitment to the goal, their expertise in content related to the goal, whether they taught to the goal in their present curriculum, and student achievement in the area. Chi-square analyses indicated that, in general, goal and expertise statements were directly related, but what was actually taught was rated 1 point lower than goal statements. Student learning statements were related to teachers’ goals but were rated even lower. Our study suggests that teachers’ goals and expertise may not be the determining factors in the taught curriculum and student achievement. Future research needs to focus on identifying barriers that prevent teachers from teaching what they would like, and feel prepared, to teach.
Dolly D. Lambdin and Mary A. Steinhardt
Mary Steinhardt, Dolly Lambdin, Mary Kamrath and Teresita Ramirez
This study examined the congruence of time usage in the areas of motor skill and physical fitness among three curriculum perspectives: the intentional (teacher’s ideal curriculum), the perceived (teacher’s recall), and the operational (observations by an outsider). Data were collected on 5 randomly selected days for each of 6 student teachers and were summarized in percent time per week for fitness instruction, skill instruction, motor skill activity, physical fitness activity, and nonactivity. Results revealed that skill and fitness activities were present in the existing curriculum as described from each perspective. However, the actual curriculum taught as perceived by the student teachers differed from the curriculum they ideally intended to teach. Student teachers varied in the accuracy of their perceptions of what occurred during class. In general, the curriculum as observed by the investigators differed from both the intentional and perceived domains. Reasons are proposed, but questions remain as to how the intentional domain is developed and why the three domains (perceived, operational, and intentional) are different.
Brian D. Dauenhauer, Xiaofen D. Keating and Dolly Lambdin
Purpose: This study aimed to conduct an in-depth investigation into physical education data sources and collection procedures in a district that was awarded a Physical Education Program (PEP) grant. Method: A qualitative, multi-site case study was conducted in which a single school district was the overarching case and eight schools served as embedded cases. Results: Findings indicated that physical education teachers collected substantial amounts of data related to physical activity, fitness, and nutritional behaviors as required by the PEP grant. Data related to other physical education standards, but not required by the grant, were not collected. Evidence indicated that the data collection/management process was time-consuming and teachers had concerns over data quality. Conclusion: Federal grant requirements have substantial influence on the types of data collected in physical education and should be reviewed to ensure alignment with standards and best practices in the field. Effective strategies are needed to reduce the amount of time teachers spend on data collection and to ensure data quality.
Xiaofen Deng Keating, Louis Harrison, Li Chen, Ping Xiang, Dolly Lambdin, Brian Dauenhauer, Willy Rotich and Jose Castro Piñero
Although substantial inquiry has been made into fitness levels of students, there has been scant examination of knowledge in this domain. This article seeks to review and analyze research on student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge mastery in K–16 programs by examining studies published in the literature. Two major results emerging from the work are misconceptions about fitness and the lack of an adequate amount of HRF knowledge among students at all educational levels (i.e., elementary, secondary, and college). These results were essentially the same as those found more than 20 years ago, indicating a persistent deficiency in fitness education. In addition, little is understood as to how HRF knowledge contributes to the establishment of lifetime physical activity patterns. Student HRF knowledge determinants as well as effective instructional strategies also need thorough study. Based on these findings, implications for improving student HRF knowledge through physical education are discussed, and recommendations for future research are included.