Don Hellison and Paul Wright
Evaluations of extended day programs in underserved communities have shown that participants usually drop out by the time they are 11–12 years old. Most of these programs, especially those that focus on physical activity, do not promote broadly developmental and empowerment-based processes and outcomes advocated by the emerging field of youth development. This article investigates both the retention issue and youth development processes and outcomes for two sequential physical activity extended day programs in an underserved community. Retention data and participant program evaluations were collected over a nine-year period, and these data together with a selective review of related studies are analyzed to determine the extent of linkage between the promotion of positive youth development and retention beyond 11–12 years old.
Michael DeBusk and Don Hellison
The process and impact of a self-responsibility model for delinquency-prone youth was investigated using a variation of the case study method. Ten 4th-grade boys referred by school officials participated in a 6-week special physical education program. Five of the six data sources suggested that (a) the model caused some affective, behavioral, and knowledge changes in the boys, especially in the special program; (b) the experience influenced the special program teacher’s attitudes and values regarding both delinquency-prone youth and the applicability of the model for non-delinquency-prone youth; and (c) the model, with the exception of strategies for transfer, retained its validity throughout the case study. Premises and limitations of the research design are discussed.
Tom Martinek and Don Hellison
In this essay, a new approach to doing research in schools and other community settings is described: service-bonded inquiry. This approach allows researchers to expand the boundaries of scholarly inquiry through the integration of service and scholarship. It is not an attempt to replace traditional forms of research; rather, it serves to complement the way researchers have historically conducted research. Service-bonded inquiry is the proverbial bridge between what Hal Lawson (1990) calls information gathering and useful information. The discussion here focuses on describing important assumptions underlying service-bonded inquiry and arguing that personal values and commitment must be assessed before engaging in this type of research. In addition, guideposts for evaluating and doing service-bonded inquiry are provided.