The purpose of this investigation was to examine age related changes in muscular power of high school wrestlers. A total of 155 high school wrestlers (M age±SD = 16.5±2.4 yrs) volunteered as subjects for this investigation. The sample included only wrestlers who were ≤ 16.00 years (younger group, n=75) or >17.00 years (older group, n=80). All subjects completed a Wingate anaerobic test to determine mean (MP) and peak (PP) power as well as underwater weighing for body composition assessment. The results indicated significant (p<0.05) group differences for absolute MP and PP but no differences when adjusted for BW and FFW. Thus the enhanced muscular power in the older group of high school wrestlers was associated with increases in BW and FFW.
Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson and Dona J. Housh
Joan M. Eckerson, Dona J. Housh, Terry J. Housh and Glen O. Johnson
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the changes in body composition, isokinetic strength, and muscular power in high school wrestlers across a season of competition. Wrestlers were measured (preseason and postseason) for body composition and isokinetic peak torque for flexion and extension of the dominant forearm and leg. Each subject also completed Wingate anaerobic tests to determine changes in mean power and peak power (PP) of the legs. The results indicated that body weight (BW), fat weight, and percent fat decreased (p < .002) across the wrestling season. PP and absolute peak torque for forearm and leg extension (LE) at 30°·s−1; forearm flexion (FF) at 30, 180, and 300°·s−1; and leg flexion (LF) at 180 and 300°·s−1 were significantly (p < .05) lower postseason. Relative peak torque (adjusted for BW) decreased (p < .05) across the season for LE at 30°·s−1 as well as FF and LF at 180°·s−1. Therefore, changes in BW were not associated with functional advantages in terms of strength or muscular power.
Terry J. Housh, Jeffrey R. Stout, Dona J. Housh and Glen O. Johnson
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the covariate influence of estimated muscle mass on age-related increases in isokinetic peak torque for flexion and extension of the forearm and leg in high school wrestlers. One hundred thirteen high school wrestlers volunteered to be measured for strength at 30, 180, and 300°·s−1. Underwater weighing was performed to determine body composition characteristics, and the anthropometric equation of Martin et al. (10) was used to estimate total skeletal muscle mass (MM). There were significant (p < .05) relationships (r = .19 to .37) for age versus peak torque covaried independently for fat-free weight (FFW) and MM for forearm flexion at 30, 180, and 300°·s−1; forearm extension at 180 and 300°·s−1; and leg extension at 30, 180 and 300°·s−1. The results of this study indicated that there was no increase across age in MM per unit of FFW, and the age-related increases in peak torque in high school wrestlers could not be fully accounted for by changes in MM.
Terry J. Housh, Jeffrey R. Stout, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh and Joan M. Eckerson
The purpose of the present study was to determine the validity of near-infrared interactance (NIR) estimates of percent body fat (% fat) using Futrex-5000, Futrex-5000A, and Futrex-1000 instruments in youth wrestlers (age, M ± SD = 11.4 ± 1.5 years) by comparing them to % fat values from underwater weighing. Fifty-eight members of youth wrestling clubs (% fat, M ± SD = 10.7 ± 5.1% fat) volunteered to serve as subjects. The statistical analyses included examination of the constant error (CE), standard error of estimate (SEE), correlation coefficient (r), and total error (TE). The results indicated that the errors (TE = 8.0–16.2% fat) associated with the NIR instruments were too large to be of practical value for estimating % fat in young male athletes. It is recommended that (a) the instrument generated NIR % fat estimates be modified based on the CE values in the present investigation such that the CE = 0, and (b) the modified NIR % fat estimates be cross-validated on independent samples of young male athletes.
Dona J. Hough, Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson and Rommie J. Hughes
The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (a) to determine the validity of high school wrestlers’ estimations of minimal wrestling weight (MWW) and (b) to compare their certified wrestling weight with the recommended MWW values based on underwater weighing (fat-free weight plus 5% fat). Sixty wrestlers (M age±SD) = 16.54±1.07 yrs) volunteered to be assessed via underwater weighing and were asked to estimate, within 1 lb, their MWW. The certified wrestling weight for each subject was also obtained from the state activities association. The results indicated that the total error for the wrestlers’ estimations of MWW ranged from 3.25 to 3.69 kg, and in 32 to 43% of the cases the certified wrestling weight was below (M = 2.29−2.84 kg) the recommended MWW from underwater weighing.
Jorge Zuniga, Terry J. Housh, Michelle Mielke, Clayton L. Camic, C. Russell Hendrix, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh and Richard J. Schmidt
The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the fat-free weight (FFW) equations derived on nonathletic children and adolescents for estimating mean power (MP) and peak power (PP) in high school wrestlers. One hundred and three male high school wrestlers performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test to estimate MP and PP, as well as underwater weighing to determine FFW. The follow equations were used to estimate the MP and PP of the wrestlers in the current study.
MP (W) = 9.3 (FFW) − 109.8 EQ.1
PP (W) = 14.1 (FFW) − 162.1 EQ.2
The results in the current study indicated that as percent of the mean values, the equation that predicted MP resulted in a substantially greater total error (TE; 19.9% of the mean) than the equation that predicted PP (8.3% of the mean). These findings indicated that the equation that was derived on nonathletes did not accurately estimate MP in the high school wrestlers. The equation for estimating PP, however, was valid when applied to the current sample of high school wrestlers. These findings supported previous studies that have shown that in adolescent males, exercise training improves the metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic glycolytic system, but not the phosphagen system.
Terry J. Housh, Rommie J. Hughes, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh, Loree L. Wagner, Joe P. Weir and Sharon A. Evans
The purpose of this investigation was to examine age-related differences in absolute and relative isokinetic shoulder strength of high school wrestlers. A total of 122 high school wrestlers (M age = 16.31±1.18 yrs) volunteered to be measured for arm flexion and extension strength at the shoulder joint using a Cybex II dynamometer at 30, 180, and 300°·s−1. The sample was divided into four age groups: 13.75−15.00 (n = 22), 15.08−16.00 (n = 27), 16.08−17.00 (n = 34), and 17.08−18.83 years (n = 39). The results of this study indicated significant increases in absolute and relative arm flexion and extension strength across age when covaried for BW and FFW. In addition, comparisons with previously published data indicated differences between muscle groups in the pattern of strength gains that were dependent upon the speed of muscular contraction and may have been influenced by fiber type distribution characteristics.
Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh, Jeffrey R. Stout, Joseph P. Weir, Loree L. Weir and Joan M. Eckerson
The purpose of the present study was to examine age-related changes in isokinetic leg flexion and extension peak torque (PT), PT/body weight (PT/BW), and PT/fat-free weight (PT/FFW) in young wrestlers. Male wrestlers (N = 108; age M ± SD = 11.3 ± 1.5 years) volunteered to be measured for peak torque at 30, 180, and 300° · s−1. In addition, underwater weighing was performed to determine body composition characteristics. The sample was divided into six age groups (8.1−8.9, n = 10; 9.0−9.9, n= 11; 10.0−10.9, n = 25; 11.0−11.9, n = 22; 12.0−12.9, n = 28; 13.0−13.9, n = 12), and repeated measures ANOVAs with Tukey post hoc comparisons showed increases across age for PT, PT/BW, and PT/FFW. The results of this study indicated that there were age-related increases in peak torque that could not be accounted for by changes in BW or FFW. It is possible that either an increase in muscle mass per unit of FFW, neural maturation, or both, contributes to the increase in strength across age in young male athletes.