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Donna Duffy

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Donna Duffy

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Donna Duffy and Brian Loy

Despite the apparent positive impact that coaching education programs have on the attitudes and behaviors of volunteer youth sport coaches, few programs exist to actually educate these coaches (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001; Gould et al., 1990). The organizations that coordinate youth sport leagues have an obligation to train these volunteer coaches, but few coaches receive training and if they do receive training, it is often lacking in specific developmental areas. There are also often differences between the coaching education programs that do exist and what volunteer coaches actually want to learn and need to learn.

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Erin J. Reifsteck, Diane L. Gill and Donna M. Duffy

The Program for the Advancement of Girls and Women in Sport and Physical Activity (PAGWSPA) at University of North Carolina at Greensboro UNCG), in collaboration with the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), hosted a joint National Conference on Girls and Women in Sport and Physical Activity on the UNCG campus, October 20-22, 2011. The conference brought together over 100 scholars, coaches, teachers, and students from across the country to share research, programs and relevant issues related to girls and women’s sport and physical activity. Reflecting the theme, “Discovering Strengths of Body and Mind,” the conference offered a wide variety of sessions including invited scholarly addresses, panel discussions, submitted research, program information, hands-on workshops and special events.

The following sections provide an overview of the conference, starting with summaries of the keynote presentations by Jan Todd, Nicole LaVoi and Carole Oglesby. The next sections provide summaries of the invited speakers, two panel sessions, and selected additional information. Brief bios for each of the invited speakers and panelists are provided at the end of the paper.

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Stephen M. Glass, Brian L. Cone, Christopher K. Rhea, Donna M. Duffy and Scott E. Ross

Context: Previous work suggests that balance behavior is a sex-dependent, complex process that can be characterized by linear and nonlinear metrics. Although a certain degree of center of pressure variability may be expected based on sexual dimorphism, there is evidence to suggest that these effects are obscured by potential interactions between sex and anthropometric factors. To date, no study has accounted for such interactive effects using both linear and nonlinear measures. Objective: This investigation sought to analyze interactive models featuring sex, height, and weight as predictors of linear and nonlinear aspects of postural control. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Controlled laboratory. Participants: A total of 26 males (23.80 [3.44] y, 177.87 [6.44] cm, 81.70 [10.80] kg) and 28 females (21.14 [2.03] y, 169.57 [8.80] cm, 64.48 [8.86] kg) were sampled from a healthy university population. MainOutcomeMeasures: Linear (range [RNG], velocity [VEL], and SD) and nonlinear (detrended fluctuation analysis scaling exponent, multivariate multiscale sample entropy [MMSECI]) summary metrics of center of pressure time series. Procedure: Participants stood on a force plate for 20 seconds in 3 conditions: double (D), single (S), and tandem (T) stance. Data for each stance condition were analyzed using regression models with interaction terms for sex × height and sex × weight. In D, weight had a positive, significant main effect on VELy, MMSECId, and MMSECIv. In men, height was observed to have a positive effect on SDy (S), RNGy (S), and RNGx (T) and a negative effect on MMSECIv (T). In women, weight was observed to have a positive effect on SDy and VELx (both T). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that men and women differ with respect to certain linear and nonlinear aspects of balance behavior, and that these differences may reflect sex-specific behavioral patterns in addition to effects related to sexual dimorphism.

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

The purpose of the current research was to gather baseline data on female youth to inform the development of a targeted physical activity (PA) and sports-based intervention, specifically identified as “Gaelic4Girls”. Cross-sectional data on PA levels, psychological correlates of PA, anthropometric characteristics, and the fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency of female youth (n = 331; M age 10.92±1.22) were collected. A subsample (n = 37) participated in focus group (FG) interviews exploring perceptions of health/sport, and identifying barriers/motivators to participation. PA levels were assessed using self-report (PA Questionnaire for Older Children) and classified as low, moderate, and high active. One- and two-way ANOVAs (post hoc Tukey honest significant difference [HSD]) were used to analyze the data. The FGs were transcribed verbatim, coded, and thematically analyzed. Findings indicated that the majority of youth (71.8%) were not meeting the minimum daily PA recommendations for health, and that 98.1% did not achieve the FMS proficiency expected for their age. Low, moderately, and highly active participants differ significantly in terms of overall FMS (p = .03), and locomotor control scores (p = .03). FG findings report fun and friendship as key PA motivators, too much competitiveness as barriers, and positive outside encouragement from family/friends/coaches as facilitators encouraging PA engagement. Findings highlight the need for targeting low levels of PA, FMS proficiency in female youth sport interventions, through addressing self-efficacy levels, inclusive of fun, and socially-stimulating PA environments.