During the past two decades the number of female athletes has increased while the number of female coaches has declined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons why NCAA Division I male and female coaches of women’s athletic teams enter and leave the profession. The findings indicate that coaches enter the profession to remain in competitive athletics and would leave the profession to spend more time with family and friends. Further research in this area is recommended to determine solutions to the problem of the declining number of female coaches.
Donna L. Pastore
The present study examined the factors that influence male and female 2-year college coaches of women's teams to select and possibly leave a career in coaching. Of 200 coaches from five athletic conferences in the Mid-Atlantic/New England region, 90 (45%) participated in the study. Two separate MANOVAs were used to analyze each of the two sets of dependent variables (reasons for selecting and reasons for leaving coaching) with the independent variable (gender). Univariate analyses showed that females valued “helping female athletes reach their athletic potential” as a reason for being a coach significantly more than males did. Female coaches also rated significantly higher than males the factors “burden of administrative duties” and “increased intensity in recruiting student-athletes” as reasons to leave the coaching profession.
Donna L. Pastore
Donna L. Pastore and William G. Meacci
This study examined the process by which female coaches of NCAA Division I, II, and III institutions are recruited, selected, and retained. A total of 501 administrators and coaches of women's teams responded to a questionnaire consisting of 22 employment process statements that elicited (a) the extent to which each process was used, and (b) the importance attached to each process by the subjects. Principal component analyses of the two data sets yielded five factors: Organizational Policies, Candidate's Experience, Informal Recruiting, Formal Recruiting, and Candidate's Credentials. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Use of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed significant two-way interaction effects for gender, position, and division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that Candidate's Credentials was rated highest by all subgroups. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Importance of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant two-way interaction effect for division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that respondents rated Candidate's Credentials and Organizational Policies highest.
Terry L. Rizzo, Penny McCullagh and Donna Pastore
This paper offers direction and guidance to help departments develop fair and equitable search, evaluation, and retention strategies for their faculty. Included is how to attract a diverse candidate pool and successfully recruit diverse candidates. In addition, the paper provides guidelines about evaluating faculty members, emphasizing the need for formative evaluation that offers faculty ample opportunities, resources, and support systems for improving their performance before any summative evaluations administered by a department or college. Finally, the paper presents retention stratagems as guidelines to help departments support and retain their high-quality faculty members. Achieving the goals of recruitment, retention, and advancement requires the involvement and leadership of university officers, school deans, department chairs/heads, and faculty.
Mark R. Lyberger and Donna L. Pastore
This study examined the self-perceived compliance of health club facility operators with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). A 112-item survey was developed to assess; awareness of ADA regulations, knowledge of the ADA and disability function, perceptions toward ADA regulations, and self-perceived compliance with ADA regulations. The questionnaire was administered to a random sample (N = 190) of facility operators in Ohio. Because only 45 (23.7%) responded, surveys were sent to the remainder of the facility operators (n = 180), yielding another 5 usable questionnaires. To verify the questionnaire's subscale structure, item-to-total correlations and internal consistency estimates (a) were utilized, and descriptive statistics and correlations were carried out. The findings suggest that low levels of awareness are associated with low to moderate levels of self-perceived compliance, that facility operators are only moderately knowledgeable and generally perceptive of the ADA, and that they are not fully complying with ADA regulations.
Donna L. Pastore, Bernie Goldfine and Harold Riemer
The present study examined the perceptions of coaches to identify and assess the important areas in which athletic administrators may provide support. A total of 173 NCAA college coaches responded to a questionnaire consisting of 46 items that elicited the importance attached to each item. Principal component analysis of the importance data set yielded six components: Game Management, Decision Making, Nondiscriminatory Work Environment, Job Benefits/Salary, Program Support, and Evaluation. Multivariate analyses of variance (MÁNOVA) was used to analyze the set of dependent variables (Importance of Items) with the independent variables (Gender and Division). The MÁNOVA showed a significant relationship for the main effects of gender and division for the importance of the components. Univariate analyses indicated a significant difference between males and females on the Decision Making component. Male coaches rated Decision Making more important than female coaches. Univariate analyses further revealed significant differences for the components Program Support and Nondiscriminatory Work Environment by division. Tukey's post-hoc analyses showed that Division III coaches rated Program Support significantly higher than those in Division I and II. No significant difference was found between Division I and II coaches. Regarding Nondiscriminatory Work Environment, a significant difference was found between Division I and III coaches in that Division III coaches rated this component significantly higher than their counterparts in Division I.
Donna L. Pastore and Michael R. Judd
Burnout has been identified as a factor contributing to the continuing decline in the number of female coaches. The present study examined the perceived level of burnout in coaches of women’s teams in 2-year colleges using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to measure burnout levels. The findings revealed significant gender differences on the Emotional Exhaustion subscale. The possible reasons for female coaches experiencing higher levels of burnout are discussed.
Janet S. Fink, Donna L. Pastore and Harold A. Riemer
This study applies a framework of diversity initiatives as a basis of exploration into top management beliefs and diversity management strategies of Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations. This framework utilizes issues of power, demographic and relational differences, and past literature regarding specific diversity strategies to empirically assess these organizations' outlooks regarding employee diversity. Results of the study suggest that Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations operate in cultures that value similarity. Demographic variables predicted a significant amount of variance in employees' perceptions of diversity management strategies. In addition, demographic differences (being different from one's leader) accounted for an even greater amount of variance in these perceptions. Top management's beliefs in the benefits of diversity were related to perceptions of different diversity practices. That is, high beliefs resulted in higher levels of diversity management practice. Discussion of the findings relative to current theory in sport and implications for sport managers are noted.
Sue Inglis, Karen E. Danylchuk and Donna L. Pastore
This paper is an exploration of the multiple realities of women’s work experiences in coaching and athletic management positions. Eleven women who had previously coached or directed women’s athletics programs were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. Three general categories emerged from the data — Support, Gender Differences, and Change. The work experiences reflect problems the women encountered at work, how organizations can be empowering, and the impact empowered women can have on the social construction of work. Based upon the data, we suggest that the individual search for empowerment takes different forms, yet also acknowledges that systemic changes must take place in order to improve the work environment for women. These findings are significant because they validate women’s experiences and contribute to the understanding of work experiences of those who are underrepresented and often left out of key circles of power and control.