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Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla Lowry

This study compared the number of sports offered to males and females in Texas colleges (N~ 113) to determine if a gender difference existed among leaders, coaches, and athletic directors of the female sport programs. In addition, predictions of gender for leaders were made based on the 10-year trend that the data covered. The data were collected by surveying annual issues of Sport Guide of High Schools and Colleges—Coaches Directory and revealed there were significantly more sports for males than for females at both the junior and senior college level. At the junior college level the mean for sports in the male programs was M=3.28, and for female programs it was M=2.09, t(9)=22.37, p > .0001. The results at the senior college level were also significant. The mean for sports in male programs at that level was M=5.67, and for females it was M=4.14, t(9)=6.68,p> .0001. There were significantly more males than females in leadership roles in female sport programs. The results of the correlated t test between the means of all positions of leadership held in female sport programs was significant. The mean of the positions held by males in junior colleges was M=90.2, and the mean for females was M=40.3, t(9) = 11.82, P> .0001. The mean of the positions held by males in senior colleges was M= 186.6, while that for females was 128.3, f(9)=6.68, p > .0001. Various causes for the reduction in the number of female coaches and implications of the current trends are discussed.

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Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla D. Lowry

The purpose of this paper is to present a historical overview of the role of women in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) since the demise of the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW). The paper traces the reluctance of some men and women to form this uneasy alliance. The paper presents evidence showing that the NCAA recognizes that women's athletics are part of the organization and that they deserve recognition and concern. However, the paper also shows that when substantive changes in the NCAA appeared imminent and the degree of recognition approached proportional equity, the pervasive and strong loyalty to the status quo quelled any proactive legislation that might include equal voice for reform in the organization.

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Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla D. Lowry

This study sought to describe the degree of success of a basic tenet of liberal feminism in providing equal opportunity as defined by female representation in the NCAA. The study showed how the NCAA is reflective of an association that is an instrument of domination. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of women holding leadership positions at the campus level in NCAA labeled functions. These data were compared with similar 1987-88 data. In addition, male and female representatives at the national level on committees and councils were compared to similar data collected in 1987-88. A gender comparison was made with the 1992-93 data involving NCAA national committees. The data revealed that there were significantly more males than females on NCAA national committees in 1992-93. The results of χ2 tests between years and female representation revealed no significant increase in female representation between 1987 and 1993; however, there was an increase in female representation beyond the mandated percentage required by NCAA bylaws.

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Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla D. Lowry

Two reasons given for the dramatic decline in the percentage of women coaches since the passage of Title IX have been the effectiveness of the “good old boys” network and the lack or ineffectiveness of the “good old girls” network. With homologous reproduction used as a theoretical basis for these networks, 1,106 public secondary schools were surveyed to determine their administrative structures based on the sex of the principals and the athletic directors. Two types of administrative structures were identified with four models under each type. The numbers of male and female head coaches in the girls' athletics program under each administrative structure were determined and analyzed for independence. Significant differences were found between the different administrative models and the gender of the head coaches. Findings are discussed in terms of the prevailing administrative structures and the representation of females in coaching as a result of the dominant group reproducing itself.