The emergence of single-sport cable channels represents a refinement of the allsports cable-channel concept and a new trend in the televised-sport marketplace. This study analyzed the contents of 24 continuous hours of programming on Golf Channel and tabulated the number and types of advertisements to better understand commercial programming strategies and practices. Commercial programming elements such as spot commercials, spot promotions, sponsored graphics, pop-up promotions, mentions, infomercials, and public service announcements were identified. In addition, commercial programming during live tournament coverage was compared with golf telecasts at 2 broadcast networks and an all-sports cable channel. The study measured 3 indicators of the amount of advertising presented in the telecasts: the number of commercial minutes per hour, the number of advertisements per hour, and the average duration of spot commercials. Results of the study were interpreted in terms of advertising clutter.
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Lynne H. Johnston and Douglas Carroll
To examine the coping strategies used after injury and the provision of and satisfaction with social support as functions of sport involvement and stage of rehabilitation.
Complete data were available at 3 points (beginning, middle, and end of formal rehabilitation) for 93 patients, all of whom had sustained injury restricting normal functioning for at least 21 days.
Coping varied as a function of stage in rehabilitation, with patients deploying all strategies more at the beginning of rehabilitation. There was little variation in coping and social support, although those more involved in sport adopted a support-seeking coping strategy to a greater extent. Irrespective of sports-involvement status, women were more satisfied with practical and emotional support. Those who were more involved in sport were judged by their physiotherapists to be better adherents. Adoption of an emotional discharge coping strategy was negatively associated with adherence throughout rehabilitation.
Lynne Halley Johnston and Douglas Carroll
This study used grounded theory to describe the emotional responses of athletes following injury and their situational and temporal contexts. Sixteen seriously injured athletes were interviewed. The NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) computer program was used to search, store, explore, and organize the qualitative material. The main emotional responses, appraisals, events, and behaviors that emerged from the analysis were represented diagrammatically. Frustration and depression were the prevalent emotional responses throughout rehabilitation, although the situational corollaries differed as recovery progressed. In the early phase of rehabilitation, frustration and depression resulted from disruption to normal function, in the middle phase they were provoked by a negative appraisal of rehabilitation progress, and. at the end of rehabilitation the main instigator was impatience to return to sport. Whether to risk returning prematurely to sport emerged as a key theme, as did the confounding effects of exercise withdrawal. symptoms in extremely committed athletes. The results were considered in terms of both cognitive appraisal and risk models.
Lynne Halley Johnston and Douglas Carroll
Twelve seriously injured athletes were asked to describe the provision of eight functional types of support during their rehabilitation. NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) was used to organize the data. Overall, the provision of social support largely matched demand. Emotional and practical forms of support decreased with time, while varieties of informational support were increasingly received and preferred over time. The provision of informational and emotional support appeared to be dictated by four temporally sequential appraisals: injury severity, rehabilitation progress, recovery/readiness to return, and sports performance. Practical support in the form of personal assistance greatly depended upon the visibility of the injury and the mobility of the injured athlete. Physiotherapists, doctors, and other currently or previously injured athletes were most likely to provide informational support requiring expert medical knowledge, whereas coaches provided informational support requiring sport-specific expertise. Friends and family were the main source of emotional and practical support. The situational and temporal context of the provision of support is represented diagrammatically.
Jennifer L.J. Heaney, Douglas Carroll, and Anna C. Phillips
The present study examined the relationship between habitual physical activity, life events stress, the diurnal rhythms of cortisol and DHEA, and the cortisol:dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratio in older adults. Thirty-six participants aged ≥ 65 reported their habitual physical activity, and indicated if a particular event happened to them in the past year (stress incidence) and how stressful they perceived the event to be (stress severity). Older adults with higher stress severity demonstrated a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio. Individuals with higher stress incidence scores and who did not participate in aerobic exercise had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm compared with those who regularly participated in aerobic exercise. In conclusion, life events stress may have a negative impact on the cortisol:DHEA ratio in older adults. Under conditions of high stress exposure, exercise may protect older adults from an increased cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm.