Dwight H. Zakus
Dwight H. Zakus
Many IOC actions have led to results that could be described as tragedy and farce. By comparing the presidency of Pierre de Coubertin with that of Avery Brundage, and comparing the decisions made in the denial of Jim Thorpe’s victories with the suspension of Karl Schranz, it is possible to see examples of tragedy and farce in the history of the Olympic movement. Further, it becomes possible to see how some of these actions and decisions have become hypocritical. The notion of hypocrisy is contained in Hoberman’s idea of “amoral universalism.” Several times the IOC has had to reverse its decisions regarding athletes. These decisions have resulted from hypocritical actions of the IOC in its attempt to maintain its version of Olympism as the guiding philosophy of the Olympic movement. The recent events surrounding Ben Johnson exemplify how the “amoral universalism,” and consequently the hypocrisy inherent in the Olympic movement, continue to affect the direct producers of Olympic performances.
David Cruise Malloy and Dwight H. Zakus
The primary purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of ethical decision making for the sport administrator. A secondary purpose is to argue for changes to the pedagogical nature and process in sport administration programs so that students have the ability to make decisions with a critically conscious praxis. Four philosophical approaches to ethics and two psychological approaches to moral reasoning are briefly discussed. A synthesis of philosophical and psychological approaches is suggested as a means to understand, in a comprehensive manner, the ethical decision-making behavior of the sport administrator within what may well be a contradiction-based sport organization. Finally, some comments are made on ways that this synthesized approach might be used in a critical active pedagogy in sport administration programs.
Terry Engelberg, Dwight H. Zakus, James L. Skinner and Alastair Campbell
The organizational commitment of volunteers has been recognized as essential for the effective management of community-based sport. Despite this, little is known about the nature of sport volunteer commitment and, more specifically, its dimensionality and targets. This study developed measures of sport volunteer commitment within a framework of multiple dimensions of commitment and multiple targets of commitment to three organizational targets in the sport volunteering setting: the organization (in this context, the athletic center), the volunteer work team, and the volunteer role. Drawing on Meyer and Herscovitch’s (2001) general commitment model, we adapted measures from previous work of Engelberg, Skinner, and Zakus (2006) of commitment to each of these targets and tested the proposed model using partial least squares regression (PLS) modeling. Results provided support for a two-dimensional model within and across each of the targets, and also showed that the measures had adequate discriminant validity and reliability. Implications for research on volunteer commitment in sport organizations are discussed.