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ZáNean McClain and E. Andrew Pitchford

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E. Andrew Pitchford and Joonkoo Yun

Background:

Pedometers are a common instrument used to measure walking activity, yet reliability evidence in disability populations, particularly Down syndrome (DS), has received little attention. There may be systematic and random sources of error that could influence reliability under natural walking conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the sources of variance and estimate reliability coefficients of spring-levered (SL) and piezoelectric (PZ) pedometers for adults with DS during a free-walking bout.

Methods:

Seventeen adults with DS and 23 adults without a disability walked continuously for a 20-minute period wearing 2 types of pedometers, SL and PZ. Step counts were analyzed using Generalizability theory to partition and quantify variance components and calculate reliability coefficients.

Results:

The largest variance component was due to individual participant differences. Adults with DS demonstrated greater intraindividual variability, but also had relatively low proportions of residual variance, or unexplained error. The SL pedometer showed problems with interunit variance while the PZ pedometer demonstrated little systematic error. Reliability coefficients were consistently higher for the PZ pedometer.

Conclusions:

This study found minimal systematic error and moderate reliability evidence for the PZ pedometer. This type of pedometer may be used in future research for adults with DS.

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E. Andrew Pitchford and Joonkoo Yun

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of spring-levered and piezoelectric pedometers for adults with and without Down syndrome (DS). Twenty adults with DS and 24 adults without a disability walked for two minute periods on a predetermined indoor course at a self-selected, slower and faster pace. Pedometer recorded and criterion observed steps were compared to determine pedometer error. There was a significant interaction between pedometer model and walking speed. Piezoelectric pedometers demonstrated significantly less measurement error than spring-levered pedometers, particularly at slower walking speeds. There were also significant differences in pedometer error between adults with and without DS. The study concludes that pedometer measurement error is significantly different for adults with DS but also that piezoelectric pedometers can be used in the future to measure walking activity for adults with and without DS.

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford and Jill Pawlowski

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford and E. Kipling Webster

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ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall and E. Andrew Pitchford

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Hyokju Maeng, E. Kipling Webster, E. Andrew Pitchford and Dale A. Ulrich

The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intrarater reliabilities of the Test of Gross Motor Development—third edition (TGMD-3). The TGMD-3 was administered to 10 typically developing children. Five raters with experience using the Test of Gross Motor Development—second edition (TGMD-2) scored the digitally recorded performances and then rescored the same performances after a period of 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to examine both inter- and intrarater reliabilities of scores. Interrater reliability for the total score, locomotor subscale, and ball skills subscale (ICC: 0.92–0.96) were all excellent, while individual skills (ICC: 0.51–0.93) had fair-to-excellent reliability. Intrarater reliability across all raters was also excellent (ICC: 0.77–0.98) but varied widely for individual raters (ICC: 0.28–1.00) including multiple examples of poor reliability. While raters experienced with the TGMD-2 can produce consistent scores for TGMD-3 total scale and subscales, additional training is needed to improve skill-specific reliability.

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Michaela A. Schenkelberg and Jill Pawlowski

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Daniel W. Tindall and Seo Hee Lee

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster and Daniel W. Tindall