With recent revisions, the evaluation of the reliability and validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development—3rd edition (TGMD-3) is necessary. The TGMD-3 was administered to 807 children (M age = 6.33 ± 2.09 years; 52.5% male). Reliability assessments found that correlations with age were moderate to large; ball skills had a higher correlation (r = .47) compared with locomotor skills (r = .39). Internal consistency was very high in each age group and remained excellent for all racial/ethnic groups and both sexes. Test-retest reliability had high ICC agreements for the locomotor (ICC = 0.97), ball skills (ICC = 0.95), and total TGMD-3 (ICC = 0.97). For validity measures, the TGMD-3 had above acceptable item difficulty (range = 0.43–0.91) and item discrimination values (range = 0.34–0.67). EFA supported a one-factor structure of gross motor skill competence for the TGMD-3 with 73.82% variance explained. CFA supported the one-factor model (χ2(65) = 327.61, p < .001, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .10), showing acceptable construct validity for the TGMD-3. Preliminary results show the TGMD-3 exhibits high levels of validity and reliability, providing confidence for the usage and collection of new norms.
E. Kipling Webster and Dale A. Ulrich
ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford and E. Kipling Webster
E. Kipling Webster, Danielle D. Wadsworth and Leah E. Robinson
This study examined the acute effects of a 10-min teacher-implemented classroom-based activity break (AB) on physical activity participation and time on-task in a preschool-age population. 118 (M age = 3.80 ± 0.69 years) students from one preschool served as participants. The intervention took place over 4 days: 2 days AB were conducted and 2 days typical instruction occurred. Physical activity was monitored via accelerometry and time on-task was measured by direct observation. Results demonstrated that AB led to a higher percent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the AB (M = 29.7%, p > .001). Breaks also promoted more on-task behavior (F U17 = 18.86, p > .001) following the AB. Specifically, the most off-task students before the break improved on-task behavior by 30 percentage points (p > .001). Percent of school day MVPA was also higher during AB days (i 117 = 3.274, p = .001). Findings indicate teachers may improve time on-task postbreak for preschoolers with a short bout of physical activity in the classroom, especially in children who are the most off-task. In addition, classroom-based AB resulted in marginal increases in MVPA during breaks that influenced whole day activity.
Nadia C. Valentini, Larissa W. Zanella and E. Kipling Webster
The Test of Gross Motor Development is used to identify children’s level of motor proficiency, specifically to detect motor delays. This study aimed to translate the TGMD-3 items and assess reliability and content and construct validity for the TGMD-3 in Brazil. A cross-cultural translation was used to generate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the TGMD-3. The validation process involved 33 professionals and 597 Brazilian children (ages 3–10) from the five main geographic regions of Brazil. The results confirmed language clarity and pertinence, as well as face validity of the TGMD-3. High intrarater (.60 to .90) and interrater (.85 to .99) reliability was evident, and test-retest temporal stability was confirmed (locomotor .93; ball skills .81). Adequate internal consistency was present for the skills-to-test and subtests correlations (TGMD-3-BR: α .74; locomotor skills: α .63; ball skills: α .76) and performance-criteria-to-test and -subtest correlations (TGMD-3: α .93; locomotor skills: .90; ball skills: .88). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of a two-factor model (RMSEA = .04, 90% confidence interval: .03 to .05; CFI = .94; NFI = .91; TLI = .92; GFI = .94; AGFI = .92). The TGMD-3 is a valid and reliable instrument for Brazilian children.
Matthias O. Wagner, E. Kipling Webster and Dale A. Ulrich
The Test of Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition (TGMD-3) is a process-oriented fundamental movement skill assessment to examine the movement patterns displayed by children between the ages of 3 and 10 years. Within this paper, results of a pilot study on the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance across gender of the TGMD-3 (German translation) are presented. In total, performances of 189 typically developing children (99 boys, 90 girls, 56 kindergarten children, 133 elementary school children, M age = 7.15 ± 2.02 years) are analyzed. Results provide preliminary evidence for test-retest, interrater and intrarater reliability, internal consistency, age- and gender- specific performance trends, factorial validity, measurement invariance across gender, divergent validity, and ball skill–related concurrent and predictive validity of the TGMD-3 (German translation). Subsequent research should be focused on a verification of the present findings on a representative database to foster the application of the TGMD-3 (German translation) in different settings.
Priscila Tamplain, E. Kipling Webster, Ali Brian and Nadia C. Valentini
Assessment of the motor domain is a critical aspect of understanding motor development. Measurement of motor development is the baseline to understand potential delays and to promote the tools for change and improvement of this domain. This paper aims to reflect on the construct of motor development and the process of assessing motor performance. We review the use of assessments in motor development research and discuss issues of validity, reliability, sensitivity, and specificity. We appraise selected assessments, describe how the use of assessments changed over the periods of study in motor development, and examine the contemporary status of assessments and its applications. Finally, and most importantly, we provide suggestions and recommendations for future directions in the field, as well as pose important questions for researchers and practitioners to consider when selecting, using, and interpreting assessment results. In light of the contemporary view of motor development and the increasing focus on health applications, we recommend the use of screening tools, short forms, and technology, as well as encouraging the use of and more research on motor development assessments in childhood.
Samuel W. Logan, E. Kipling Webster, Nancy Getchell, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Leah E. Robinson
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence of the relationship between fundamental motor skills (FMS) competence and physical activity by qualitatively describing results from 13 studies that met rigorous inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: (a) published in a peer-review journal, (b) participants were between the ages of 3–18, (c) participants were typically developing, (d) FMS was measured by a process-oriented assessment, (e) assessed physical activity, (f) related FMS and physical activity through statistical procedures, and (g) printed in English. Databases were searched for relevant articles using key terms related to FMS and physical activity. Evidence suggested low to moderate relationships between FMS competence and physical activity in early childhood (r = .16 to .48; R 2 = 3–23%, 4 studies), low to high relationships in middle to late childhood (r = .24 to .55; R 2 = 6–30%, 7 studies), and low to moderate relationships in adolescence (r = .14 to .35; R 2 = 2–12.3%, 2 studies). Across ages, object control skills and locomotor skills were more strongly related to physical activity for boys and girls, respectively. Future research should emphasize experimental and longitudinal research designs to provide further understanding of the relationship between FMS competence and physical activity.
Hyokju Maeng, E. Kipling Webster, E. Andrew Pitchford and Dale A. Ulrich
The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intrarater reliabilities of the Test of Gross Motor Development—third edition (TGMD-3). The TGMD-3 was administered to 10 typically developing children. Five raters with experience using the Test of Gross Motor Development—second edition (TGMD-2) scored the digitally recorded performances and then rescored the same performances after a period of 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to examine both inter- and intrarater reliabilities of scores. Interrater reliability for the total score, locomotor subscale, and ball skills subscale (ICC: 0.92–0.96) were all excellent, while individual skills (ICC: 0.51–0.93) had fair-to-excellent reliability. Intrarater reliability across all raters was also excellent (ICC: 0.77–0.98) but varied widely for individual raters (ICC: 0.28–1.00) including multiple examples of poor reliability. While raters experienced with the TGMD-2 can produce consistent scores for TGMD-3 total scale and subscales, additional training is needed to improve skill-specific reliability.