Extending upon Iwasaki and Fry’s study published in 2016, the connections between mindfulness, goal orientations, and motivational climate perceptions were examined among exercisers. Participants (N = 324, 62% women) were surveyed six weeks into their group exercise classes on their perceptions of the class climate (caring, task-involving, and ego-involving), goal orientations (task and ego), and general mindfulness. Separate linear regressions for men and women were run to determine if exercisers’ perceptions of the motivational climate and their goal orientations predicted general mindfulness. Similar to previous research, ego goal orientation did not significantly predict mindfulness. In contrast to previous research, the regression model for women exercisers was not significant and predicted only 2.3% of general mindfulness variance. However, 9.6% of general mindfulness variance was predicted for men by the significant regression model. Men’s perceptions of the caring climate and their task goal orientation were similarly important positive predictors of mindfulness. By fostering a caring climate, exercise instructors have the potential to increase their participants’ general mindfulness, an important avenue for positively affecting participants’ quality of life.
Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore
E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels
Youth’s likelihood of participating in sport increases when they maintain a focus on enjoyment, learning, and effort (i.e., task goal orientation) rather than how they compare to others and norms (i.e., ego goal orientation). Achievement goal theory research consistently illustrates the significant influence of leader-created motivational climates on their participants’ goal orientation adoption. However, the influence of caring climate perceptions by highly competitive adolescent athletes on their goal orientation adoption has yet to be examined. Thus, this study assessed how competitive, adolescent soccer players’ perceptions of the climate as caring, task-, and ego-involving predicted their adoption of task and ego goal orientations. Players (N = 152, 62% female, 12–14 years of age) in the Olympic Development Program completed a survey that included measures of the caring climate, task-involving and ego-involving motivational climates, and task and ego goal orientations in soccer. Path analyses revealed males’ task goal orientation was significantly predicted by caring and task-involving climate perceptions. Females’ task goal orientation was significantly predicted by their task-involving climate perceptions. Ego goal orientation was significantly predicted by all athletes’ ego-involving climate perceptions. This is the first study to support the importance of fostering a high caring, as well as high task-involving, and low ego-involving climate when working with highly competitive adolescent athletes to keep their task goal orientation high. Research replicating this study is warranted to provide further support for these relationships longitudinally and across ages and sexes.
Aubrey Newland, Maria Newton, E. Whitney G. Moore, and W. Eric Legg
Given the key role coaches play in the experience of athletes, understanding the relationship between coach leadership styles and positive youth development (PYD) is crucial. This study examined the relationship of coach transformational leadership (TFL) to PYD. Athletes (n = 203) nested within 28 competitive youth basketball teams completed questionnaires about their coaches’ TFL, and two measures related to their own PYD – Youth Experiences for Sport, measuring PYD specific to the sport context, and a measure to assess the 5Cs (Competence, Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring). Due to the nested nature of athletes within team and significant intraclass correlations, the predictive contribution of team and individual level perceptions of TFL was assessed with multilevel modeling. Individual and team perceptions of coach TFL significantly predicted 59% of the YES-S variance. In addition to team and individual main effects, a significant cross-level interaction predicted 20% of a player’s development of the 5Cs. Thus, athletes reporting above average coach TFL on teams reporting above average coach TFL reported the greatest 5C development. These results provide additional support for TFL as an avenue to foster PYD. Findings elucidate transformational coach behaviors that are related to positive experiences in youth sport and the 5Cs.