Twenty nine ostomy children (16 girls and 13 boys) with external openings in their urinary or intestinal tract for waste collection were assessed for fitness using the Health Related Physical Fitness test. The children, as a group, were discovered to be only in the 20th percentile in overall fitness when compared to the norm in the United States. Using guidelines established by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, all 29 children were identified as candidates for an individualized adapted physical education program.
E. William Vogler
Kathy Jeltma and E. William Vogler
An A-B-A-B time series design was used to determine the effects of an individual contingency system in decreasing inappropriate and disruptive behavior of behaviorally disordered students in a physical education setting. Nine students (ages 8-13 years) participated in a 4-week physical education program in which response cost procedures (loss of free time) were systematically administered to individuals who did not follow class rules. Results indicated that during treatment and replication of treatment, the on-task behavior of all students improved from 44.0% to 69.1% and 38.1% to 71.6%, respectively. Older students appeared more responsive to treatment than younger students. Individually, three of five younger students (mean age 9.4 years) and all four older students (mean age 12.2 years) responded favorably to treatment. The study demonstrates that an individual contingency can be an effective behavioral strategy in modifying disruptive behavior which normally prevents these students from participation in physical education. In addition, younger as well as older students benefit from the approach, but not all individuals within this group responded favorably.
E. William Vogler, Patricia Koranda and Tom Romance
The purpose was to examine an inclusive physical education kindergarten class containing a child with severe spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. An adapted physical educator served as a human resource. Participants were a kindergartner (6 years of age) with severe disability, 20 nondisabled peers (5-6 years of age), an adapted physical educator, and a regular physical educator. The research method was case study. Data were collected periodically by systematic observation and by interview during an 18-week period in the fall school semester. Twenty percent, or approximately one class per week (n = 19) were analyzed that were movement exploration in nature. Results indicated that inclusion classes were highly effective in time engagement and management, and the qualitative nature of inclusion was one of widespread social acceptance and successful motor participation. It was concluded that the use of a people resource model, with an adapted educator, is a highly effective educational practice.
E. William Vogler, Hans Van der Mars, Barbara E. Cusimano and Paul Darst
Teaching effectiveness with elementary level mainstreamed and nondisabled children was analyzed from the perspective of teacher experience and expertise. There were three analyses: (a) experienced (12.6 yrs) versus less experienced (2.3 yrs) teachers, n=10 each, (b) expert (met 4 of 5 criteria) versus nonexpert (met no criteria) teachers, n=5 each, and (c) expert (met 4 of 5 criteria) versus experienced (no criteria, similar experience) teachers, n=4 each. Classes were matched on activities. Teaching effectiveness was evaluated by analysis of how the teacher allocated class time and how time was spent by the student. Specifically, motor appropriate, on- and off-task data were collected on one mainstreamed and one nondisabled student from each class. Results indicated that teacher behavior differed little as a function of either experience or expertise. Mainstreamed students were significantly less motor appropriate and more off-task than nondisabled students, and neither experience nor expertise significantly altered those differences. The results imply that greater teacher experience or expertise does not necessarily translate into improvements of teacher and student behavior, and simple placement of mainstreamed students with teachers with more experience or expertise may not necessarily be beneficial.
E. William Vogler, Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst and Barbara Cusimano
Classroom processes were analyzed to study the effectiveness of main-streaming in physical education. Thirty teachers and 30 mainstreamed handicapped students were videotaped in elementary school P.E. classes. Data on their classroom behavior were coded using standard systematic ALT–PE “effective teaching” observation practices. There were many favorable classroom processes to indicate that mainstreaming was a good context for both handicapped and nonhandicapped students (e.g., comparable ALT–PE percentages and a more positive than negative interaction between teacher and student). Variables most predictive of ALT–PE were interruptions in class and whether a teacher was itinerant or not.