Although sophisticated forceplate systems are available for postural stability analyses, their use is limited in many sports medicine settings because of budgetary constraints. The purpose of this investigation was to compare a clinical method of evaluating postural stability with a force-platform sway measure. Participants completed a battery of three stance variations (double, single, and tandem) on two different surfaces (firm and foam) while standing on a force platform. This arrangement allowed for simultaneous comparisons between forceplate sway measures and clinical assessments using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Significant correlations were revealed for the single-leg and tandem stances on the firm surface and for double, single, and tandem stances on the foam surface. These results suggest that the BESS is a reliable method of assessing postural stability in the absence of computerized balance systems.
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Bryan L. Riemann, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, and Edgar W. Shields
Phillip A. Gribble, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, William E. Prentice, and Edgar W. Shields
The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of static and hold-relax stretching on hamstring range of motion and to examine the reliability of the FlexAbility LE1000 compared with the goniometrically measured active knee-extension test. Forty-two participants (18–25 years old) were assigned to either a control, static, or hold-relax training group. Participants were stretched four times a week over a 6-week period, with four 30-s stretches per session using a straight-leg-raise method on the FlexAbility LE1000. It was determined that both static and hold-relax techniques significantly improved hamstring flexibility (ISLR: +33.08° ± 9.08° and +35.17° ± 10.39°, respectively). Participants of both techniques reached a plateau in flexibility improvement between Weeks 4 and 5. Thus, static and hold-relax stretching are equally effective in improving hamstring ROM. The FlexAbility LE1000 and the goniometer were both found to be highly reliable. Therefore, either measurement technique could be used successfully to measure hip-flexion ROM.
Darin A. Padua, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, William E. Prentice, Robert E. Schneider, and Edgar W. Shields
To determine whether select shoulder exercises influence shoulder-rotation strength, active angle reproduction (AAR), single-arm dynamic stability, and functional throwing performance in healthy individuals.
54, randomly placed in 4 training groups.
Four 5-week training protocols.
Main Outcome Measures:
Average shoulder-rotation torque, AAR, single-arm dynamic stability, and functional throwing performance.
Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed a significant group-by-test interaction for average torque (P > .05). Post hoc analyses revealed significantly increased average torque in the open kinetic chain and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) groups after training. AAR and sway velocity were not affected in any of the groups (P > .05), but functional performance revealed a significant group-by-test interaction (P < .05). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the PNF group significantly improved after training (P < .05).
Shoulder strength can be improved in healthy individuals, but improvements depend on the exercise performed. Shoulder proprioception and neuromuscular control were unchanged in all groups, but functional performance improved in the PNF group
Luke M. Ross, Johna K. Register-Mihalik, Jason P. Mihalik, Karen L. McCulloch, William E. Prentice, Edgar W. Shields, and Kevin M. Guskiewicz
Recent evidence has revealed deficiencies in the ability to divide attention after concussion.
To examine the effects of a single vs a dual task on cognition and balance in healthy subjects and to examine reliability of 2 dual-task paradigms while examining the overall feasibility of the tasks.
Pretest–posttest experimental design.
Sports medicine research laboratory.
30 healthy, recreationally active college students.
Subjects performed balance and cognitive tasks under the single- and dual-task conditions during 2 test sessions 14 d apart.
Main Outcome Measures:
The procedural reaction-time (PRT) test of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (eyes-closed tasks) and an adapted Procedural Auditory Task (PAT; eyes-open tasks) were used to assess cognition. The NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) were used to assess balance performance. Five 2-way, within-subject ANOVAs and a paired-samples t test were used to analyze the data. ICCs were used to assess reliability across 2 test sessions.
On the SOT, performance significantly improved between test sessions (F 1,29 = 35.695, P < .001) and from the single to the dual task (F 1,29 = 9.604, P = .004). On the PRT, performance significantly improved between test sessions (F 1,29 = 57.252, P < .001) and from the single to the dual task (F 1,29 = 7.673, P = .010). No differences were seen on the BESS and the PAT. Reliability across test sessions ranged from moderate to poor for outcome measure.
The BESS appears to be a more reliable and functional tool in dual-task conditions as a result of its increased reliability and clinical applicability. In addition, the BESS is more readily available to clinicians than the SOT.