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  • Author: Edward M. Heath x
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Erin Coppin, Edward M. Heath, Eadric Bressel and Dale R. Wagner


The aim of this study was to develop reference values for the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) for peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) in NCAA Division IA male athletes.


Seventy-seven athletes (age 20.8 ± 1.8 y, mass 84.4 ± 9.4 kg, height 183.9 ± 6.2 cm) participating in American football (n = 52) and track and field (n = 25) performed a 30-s WAnT resisted at 0.085 kp/kg body mass (BM).


Absolute mean (± SD) values for PP and MP were 1084.2 ± 137.0 and 777.1 ± 80.9 W, respectively, whereas values normalized to BM were 12.9 ± 1.5 and 9.3 ± 0.9 W/kg BM, respectively. Mean FI values were 49.1% ± 8.4%. PP outputs >13.6, 12.4–13.6, and <12.4 W/kg BM were classified as high, medium, and low, respectively. MP outputs >9.8, 9.0–9.8, and <9.0 W/kg BM were classified as high, medium, and low, respectively.


The reference values developed in this study can be used in various athletic training and research programs to more accurately assess athletes’ anaerobic fitness and to monitor changes resulting from anaerobic training.

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Roman P. Pope, Karen J. Coleman, Eugenia C. Gonzalez, Felix Barron and Edward M. Heath

This study was designed to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT5) and a modified SOFIT scale (SOFIT6) for assessing activity levels in physical education (PE) classes. Participants were 56 third- to fifth-grade students from a predominantly (98%) Hispanic school. Inter-rater reliability, using intraclass correlations, for both SOFIT5 and SOFIT5 was r = .98. The correlation for the SOFIT5 with TriTrac was r = .60 (CI = .43–.734) and the correlation for the SOFIT6 with TriTrac was r = .68 (CI = .524–.804). A six-point SOFIT scale may be more sensitive to measuring variations in light and moderate physical activity during PE classes as compared to the standard five point SOFIT scale. This has important implications for using this observation system to estimate the effects of interventions for physical activity during PE classes.

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Katie N. Brown, Heidi J. Wengreen, Katherine A. Beals and Edward M. Heath

This quasi-experimental study aimed to assess risk for the female athlete triad (Triad) and pilot a peer-led Triad educational intervention. Twenty-nine female high school track and field athletes (N = 29) at one high school in the western United States consented to participate. Participants were weighed and measured, and completed pre- and postsurveys that included Triad risk factor questions and 10 questions assessing Triad knowledge. 54% of athletes reported current menstrual irregularity; 7% reported a history of stress fractures. Significant increases in Triad knowledge were observed pre- to postintervention (4.7 ± 2.6 to 7.7 ± 1.78 out of 10; p < .0001). Triad education was generally accepted and enjoyed by participants; however, 86% preferred that a coach or other adult provide education instead of a peer.