Ricky Anderson, Carol Courtney and Eli Carmeli
The purpose of this study was to see if vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis (VMO:VL) ratios could be increased by widening the squat stance and if the VMO activity increases with deeper ranges of knee flexion. Fifteen healthy subjects performed unloaded narrow and wide stance squats through three ranges of knee flexion: 30°, 60°, and 90°. The two squat stances were compared using a 2 × 3 ANOVA to see if the wide-stance squat had any significant difference in EMG activity for VMO: VL ratios compared to the narrow-stance squat. The difference in EMG activity of the VMO between the various angles for both squat stances was also compared. The ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the squat stances for VMO:VL ratios but did show the VMO:VL ratios to be significantly higher with increasing knee flexion angles. These findings suggest that the VMO is active throughout the 90° range and that increasing knee flexion angles can elicit greater activity of the VMO relative to the VL.
Eli Carmeli, Raymond Coleman, H. Llaguna Omar and Dawn Brown-Cross
The timings of pedestrian crosswalk signals are usually determined by traffic engineers, based on data from gait-speed trials, which might not take into consideration environmental factors or the special needs of elderly pedestrians. The authors carried out a study on a selected population of elderly south Florida residents (mean age 82.7 years) that showed slower crossing times with an outdoor simulated street crossing than with an indoor crossing. The gait-velocity trials indicate that timing of crosswalk signals might be inappropriate and might need readjusting to improve pedestrian safely for the elderly.
Eli Carmeli, Tamar Bar-Yossef, Claudette Ariav, Rosy Paz, Hanna Sabbag and Ran Levy
Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) show a greater tendency toward deconditioning and having a sedentary lifestyle than their peers without disabilities. The aim of this study was to characterize sensorimotor deficits through coordination tests and during static and dynamic balance. Eight tasks that involved the integration of hand movements with visual information were used here, as well as the Posture Scale Analyzer system to examine postural stability. During static and dynamic standing tests with the eyes closed, the postural stability of people with ID was accompanied by a small sway rate. In the ID group, the frontal plane movements were significantly larger (p > .05) than the sagittal plane movements. The participants with ID showed a significantly lower score than the control group in all the sensorimotor tests. Our observations on balance and coordination capabilities might have significance for understanding the mechanisms underlying movement dysfunction in adults with ID and offer some new approaches for their possible prevention.