Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel, Rita DiGioacchino DeBate, Robin R. High and Elizabeth F. Racine
Evidence supporting the effectiveness of a developmental-focused youth sport (DYS) program designed exclusively for elementary school aged girls is mounting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of on the Girls on the Run program on psychological and physical assets among 3rd- to 5th-grade girls.
A longitudinal quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate intervention effects among 877 participants categorized into 1 of 3 groups (never, newly, and previously exposed). A 64-item self-report survey measured developmental assets at 3 time-points. Nested random effects ANOVA models were used to compare demographic factors and psychological and physical assets between exposure groups and to compare longitudinal differences in these assets.
After adjustment for multiple comparisons, previous program participants had significantly higher physical activity commitment (P = .006) and physical activity levels (P = .047) at preintervention than never exposed. From pre- to postintervention body image improved in newly exposed participants (P = .03). Physical activity increased from preintervention to follow-up among never and newly exposed participants (all P < .05).
Although we were unable to fully confirm the study hypotheses, the results of the current study provide new evidence to support future long-term studies examining the effectiveness of an innovative DYS program for 3rd- to 5th-grade girls.
Elizabeth F. Racine, Sarah B. Laditka, Jacek Dmochowski, Michael C.R. Alavanja, Duck-chul Lee and Jane A. Hoppin
Heavy carrying and lifting (HCL) is a common activity among farmers that may be related to health. The aim of this study was to examine HCL as a proxy for occupational physical activity (PA) among farm residents. The secondary objective was to evaluate PA based on HCL.
Data from 21,296 farmers and 30,951 spouses in the Agricultural Health Study examined the relationship between HCL and farm activities and individual/farm characteristics. HCL was categorized as ≥ 1 or < 1 hours per day. The association between HCL and farm activities (15 for farmers; 16 for spouses) and individual/farm characteristics was examined using adjusted logistic regression. To evaluate PA, we created a PA activity index using metabolic equivalents for HCL, and compared PA weekly averages with national guidelines.
In adjusted results, most farm activities were significantly associated with HCL. Based on HCL, farmers had a median of 1.5 hours and spouses 0.5 hours of vigorous or muscle-strengthening PA per day. Most farmers (94%) and about 60% of spouses meet or exceed 2008 national guidelines for vigorous or muscle-strengthening PA.
Findings suggest the HCL measure may be useful as a PA metric in future studies of occupational PA among farm residents.