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Robert C. Eklund, Diane Mack and Elizabeth Hart

The purpose of this investigation was to address the need to clarify the factorial measurement properties of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS). Data collected from 760 female participants (who, on average, were young adults) were randomly placed into one of two samples to facilitate double cross-validation analyses. Calibration confirmatory factor analyses of three plausible models identified in research reports were conducted using structural equation modeling procedures. Subsequent cross-validation revealed a model with two first-order factors subordinate to one second-order factor to be unambiguously the most adequate among competing models. This model also exhibited a good fit both in calibration and in cross-validation with all incremental fit indexes exceeding the desirable .90 criterion. These results challenge initial validation study contentions that the SPAS is unidimensional.

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Robert C. Eklund, Diane Mack and Elizabeth Hart

The purpose of this investigation was to address the need to clarify the factorial measurement properties of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS). Data collected from 760 female participants (who, on average, were young adults) were randomly placed into one of two samples to facilitate double cross-validation analyses. Calibration confirmatory factor analyses of three plausible models identified in research reports were conducted using structural equation modeling procedures. Subsequent cross-validation revealed a model with two first-order factors subordinate to one second-order factor to be unambiguously the most adequate among competing models. This model also exhibited a good fit both in calibration and in cross-validation with all incremental fit indexes exceeding the desirable .90 criterion. These results challenge initial validation study contentions that the SPAS is unidimensional.

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Elizabeth A. Hart, Mark R. Leary and W. Jack Rejeski

A 12-item self-report scale was developed to assess the degree to which people become anxious when others observe or evaluate their physiques. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) demonstrated both high internal and test-retest reliability. It also correlated appropriately with concerns regarding others' evaluations and with feelings about one's body. Validity data showed that women who scored high on the SPAS were heavier and had a higher percentage of body fat than those who scored lower. In addition, high scorers reported significantly greater anxiety during a real evaluation of their physiques, further supporting the validity of the scale. Possible uses of the SPAS in basic research involving physique anxiety and in applied fitness settings are discussed.

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Elizabeth K. Grimm, Ann M. Swartz, Teresa Hart, Nora E. Miller and Scott J. Strath

Older adult physical activity (PA) levels obtained from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ) and accelerometry (ACC) were compared. Mean difference scores between accumulated or bout ACC PA and the IPAQ were computed. Spearman rank-order correlations were used to assess relations between time spent in PA measured from ACC and self-reported form of the IPAQ, and percentage agreement across measures was used to classify meeting or not meeting PA recommendations. The IPAQ significantly underestimated sitting and overestimated time spent in almost all PA intensities. Group associations across measures revealed significant relations in walking, total PA, and sitting for the whole group (r = .29–.36, p < .05). Significant relationships between bout ACC and IPAQ walking (r = .28–.39, p < .05) were found. There was 40–46% agreement between measures for meeting PA recommendations. The IPAQ appears not to be a good indicator of individual older adult PA behavior but is better suited for larger population-based samples.

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Ann M. Swartz, Sergey Tarima, Nora E. Miller, Teresa L. Hart, Elizabeth K. Grimm, Aubrianne E. Rote and Scott J. Strath

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA), and body fat (total, abdominal) or body size (body-mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC]) in community-dwelling adults 50 yr old and over. This study included 232 ambulatory adults (50–87 yr, 37.4% ± 9.6% body fat [BF]). Average daily time spent in SB (<100 counts/min) and light (100–759 counts/min), lifestyle-moderate (760–1,951 counts/min), walking-moderate (1,952–5,724cts/min), and vigorous-intensity (≥5,725 counts/min) PA were determined by accelerometer and corrected for wear time. BF was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. SB was positively related to measures of BF. Measures of SB, PA, and gender accounted for 55.6% of the variance in total BF, 32.4% of the variance in abdominal fat, and 28.0% of the variance in WC. SB, PA, and age accounted for 27.1% of the variance in BMI. Time spent in SB should be considered when designing obesity interventions for adults 50 yr old and over.

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Sarah E. Martiny, Ilka H. Gleibs, Elizabeth J. Parks-Stamm, Torsten Martiny-Huenger, Laura Froehlich, Anna-Lena Harter and Jenny Roth

Based on research on stereotype threat and multiple identities, this work explores the beneficial effects of activating a positive social identity when a negative identity is salient on women’s performance in sports. Further, in line with research on the effects of anxiety in sports, we investigate whether the activation of a positive social identity buffers performance from cognitive anxiety associated with a negative stereotype. Two experiments tested these predictions in field settings. Experiment 1 (N = 83) shows that the simultaneous activation of a positive (i.e., member of a soccer team) and a negative social identity (i.e., woman) led to better performance than the activation of only a negative social identity for female soccer players. Experiment 2 (N = 46) demonstrates that identity condition moderated the effect of cognitive anxiety on performance for female basketball players. Results are discussed concerning multiple identities’ potential for dealing with stressful situations.