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Martha Walker, Donald Sussman, Michael Tamburello, Bonnie VanLunen, Elizabeth Dowling and Beth Ernst Jamali


A strength-endurance diagram predicts that a person should be able to perform 30 repetitions of an exercise if the resistance level is 60% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM).


To compare the number of repetitions predicted by the diagram with recorded repetitions of a shoulder exercise.


Single-group comparison with a standard.




34 healthy adults (20 women, 14 men) with a mean age of 29 years (range 20–49).

Main Outcome Measures:

The number of repetitions that subjects could perform in good form of a shoulder exercise with resistance of 60% 1RM.


The mean number of repetitions was 21 (± 3, range 15–28), which was significantly different than the 30 repetitions that the diagram predicted.


The strength-endurance diagram did not accurately predict the number of repetitions of a shoulder exercise that subjects could perform.

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Angie L.I. Cradock, Emily M. O'Donnell, Sara E. Benjamin, Elizabeth Walker and Meghan Slining


As interventions increasingly emphasize early child care settings, it is necessary to understand the state regulatory context that provides guidelines for outdoor physical activity and safety and sets standards for child care environments.


Researchers reviewed regulations for child care facilities for 50 states, the District of Columbia and the Virgin Islands. We compared state regulations with national standards for 17 physical activity- and safety-related items for outdoor playground settings outlined in Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards: Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs (CFOC). State regulations were coded as fully, partially or not addressing the CFOC standard and state-level summary scores were calculated.


On average, state regulations fully addressed one-third of 17 CFOC standards in regulations for centers (34%) and family child care homes (27%). Data suggest insufficient attention to outdoor play area proximity and size, equipment height, surfacing, and inspections.


Considerable variation exists among state regulations related to physical activity promotion and injury prevention within outdoor play areas. Many states' regulations do not comply with published national health and safety standards. Enhancing regulations is one component of a policy approach to promoting safe, physically active child care settings.