Purpose: Little is known about how teachers acquire specialized content knowledge (SCK). We examine the hypothesis that SCK is not acquired from K-12 physical education and from extracurricular activities characterized by playing; instead, SCK must be explicitly taught to teachers. Method: Students were enrolled in either basic physical activity instruction classes (n = 119), where the focus of instruction was on learning to play (common content knowledge), or physical education teacher education movement classes (n = 72), where the focus of instruction was on learning to teach (SCK). Content maps were used to assess the SCK of the study participants prior to and after receiving instruction in badminton, tennis, basketball, and volleyball. Results: Non-parametric statistics showed significant differences in pretest scores. However, these differences were determined to be not meaningful. Pre-post gains were significant for both groups but, meaningfully different only for the teaching group. Discussion: Findings demonstrate that (a) SCK is not acquired in any depth from engagement in K-12 physical education and extracurricular experiences, and (b) can be explicitly taught to teachers.
Phillip Ward, Emi Tsuda, Fatih Dervent and Erhan Devrilmez
Fatih Dervent, Phillip Ward, Erhan Devrilmez and Emi Tsuda
Purpose: Instructional tasks are a form of content knowledge that can be defined as specialized content knowledge (SCK). We examined the changes in the use of instructional tasks and SCK index scores of preservice teachers from methods to final practicum. Method: Five preservice teachers were observed through the methods practicum where they taught a small group consisting of six to eight students and then through final practicum where they taught whole intact classes. A modified version of content development categories and formula to measure the depth of content development was used. SCK index scores of the preservice teachers created by the formula were used to compare the changes from methods with final practicum. Results: The results showed an increase in the mean SCK index scores of the preservice teachers from methods practicum to final practicum. The use of informing and extending-applying tasks decreased in the final practicum, while an increase occurred in the use of refining and applying tasks. Discussion/Conclusion: Increase in the mean SCK index scores seemed to reflect the strong SCK emphasis of the physical education teacher education program. It can be concluded that SCK can and should be taught to preservice teachers.
Ruri Famelia, Emi Tsuda, Syahrial Bakhtiar and Jacqueline D. Goodway
This study examined the feasibility of recruiting and collecting data of Indonesian preschooler’s fundamental motor skill (FMS) competence, perceived motor competence, and physical activity in school. A secondary purpose was to explore the relationship among perceived motor competence, FMS competence, school day physical activity behaviors, playground physical activity behaviors, and sex of Indonesian preschoolers from urban and rural environments. Preschoolers (N = 66; n = 35 rural, n = 31 urban) were evaluated on the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC), Perceived Physical Competence subscale (PPC). FMS competence was evaluated using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3. Three-day accelerometry at school yielded percent of school day and percent of playground time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviors. Children spent 80% of the school day in sedentary behavior and 7% in MVPA. There were sex differences (p < .05) in ball skills favoring boys, and location differences on sedentary playground behaviors (p < .05) with rural children being more sedentary. Children felt “pretty good” about their motor skills (3.29–3.46) on the PPC and PMSC. Regression analyses revealed that location and locomotor skills predicted 13.8% of playground sedentary behaviors; PPC and locomotor skills explained 13.3% of MVPA on the playground; and ball skills predicted 7.7% of PPC. These findings emphasize the need for early motor skill and physical activity interventions and highlight the importance of perceived motor competence.
Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su
Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.