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Active WV: A Systematic Approach to Developing a Physical Activity Plan for West Virginia

Eloise Elliott, Emily Jones, and Sean Bulger

Background:

Modeled after the National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP), ActiveWV 2015: The West Virginia Physical Activity Plan was developed to provide strategic direction for physical activity promotion within the state. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the systematic approach taken in developing ActiveWV.

Method:

Plan development began with establishing capacity and leadership among key stakeholders representing all societal sectors. A multiphase, statewide decision-making process allowed for input across sectors and geographic regions. The process results identified five priority areas that served as the conceptual framework for ActiveWV. Sector teams, comprised of key organization stakeholders across the eight sectors, finalized the sector-specific strategies and tactics using the NPAP evidence-based recommendations, results from a formalized strategic process, and the teams’ expertise and experience.

Results:

ActiveWV was officially released on January 19, 2012 at the State Capitol in Charleston, West Virginia. Community events throughout the state surrounded the release and celebrated West Virginia Physical Activity Day. Ongoing implementation and dissemination efforts are underway at state and local levels.

Conclusions:

As the NPAP calls for states and communities to develop plans that meet the needs of their particular context, other states may find the lessons learned from West Virginia helpful in the development process.

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A Mixed Methods Analysis of a Single-Course Strategy to Integrate Technology Into PETE

James D. Wyant, Emily M. Jones, and Sean M. Bulger

In recent years increased attention has been placed on physical education teachers’ use of technology. To date little research has been disseminated regarding the strategies physical education teacher education (PETE) programs are employing to prepare preservice teacher’s to use technology. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence a technology course had on advancing change in preservice teachers. A mixed methods process involving qualitative and quantitative data collection was employed. Participants included 12 preservice teachers enrolled at a mid-Atlantic university. Data analysis revealed four dominant themes emerged from participant data: (1) Increased Technological and Technological Pedagogical Knowledge; (2) Persistent First- and Second-Order Barriers to Technology Use; (3) Necessity of Experiential and Hands-on Learning; and (4) Variation in Warrant for Technology Use. Findings illustrate strengths and limitations of a technology course in a preservice PETE program as well as its potential benefits and impediments to manifesting teacher change.

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Exploring Pre-Service Physical Education Teacher Technology Use During Student Teaching

Emily M. Jones, Jun-hyung Baek, and James D. Wyant

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing preservice teachers’ (PST) experiences integrating technology within a guided action-based research project in the context of student teaching.

Methods:

Participants were enrolled at a rural, mid-Atlantic university (N = 80, 53 male; 27 female). Researchers retrieved archived data from five semesters of physical education (PE) student teaching cohorts. Data sources included: Technology Action Research Project poster presentations (n = 75) and reflective journal entries (n = 234). All identifiable information was removed, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively.

Results:

Three themes and subthemes emerged Student Clientele, Self as Teacher, and Others as Systems of Support as contributing agents in PSTs’ experiences integrating technology.

Discussion/Conclusion:

Results of this study support technology-rich field-based experiences for PSTs that are guided by an action research framework. Findings enhance our understanding of factors that facilitate and hinder early career PE teachers use of technology in teaching and learning settings.

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Physical Education Teacher Perceptions of Technology-Related Learning Experiences: A Qualitative Investigation

Jun-Hyung Baek, Emily Jones, Sean Bulger, and Andrea Taliaferro

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine in-service physical education teachers’ perceptions of and perceived value of technology-related learning across three formal training experiences (pre-service education, in-service continuing professional development, and graduate education). Methods: Twelve teachers enrolled in a graduate-level physical education teacher education program at a rural mid-Atlantic university participated in the study. Participants completed the Stage of Adoption of Technology survey (Christensen, 1997) and engaged in individual semi-structured interviews. Results: Six learning sources and four themes relative to participants’ perceptions of and perceived value of technology learning experiences emerged from the interview which include (a) absence of technology in K-12 PE, (b) technology-centric experience, (c) broadened awareness through observation, and (d) growth through hands-on experience. Conclusion: The findings align with and extend to previous research that suggests technology experiences must be dynamic, authentic, and tailored for individuals at different stages of technology adoption.

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“Knock, Knock … Who’s There?” ChatGPT and Artificial Intelligence-Powered Large Language Models: Reflections on Potential Impacts Within Health and Physical Education Teacher Education

Chad M. Killian, Risto Marttinen, Donal Howley, Julia Sargent, and Emily M. Jones

This research note suggests the emergence of Artificial Intelligence-powered chatbots like ChatGPT pose challenges to the future of higher education. We as a field should pay attention to issues and opportunities associated with this technology across learning, teaching, and research spaces. We propose ignoring, or being indifferent to, predictions about what technologies like Artificial Intelligence-powered chatbots can do can cause us to do “dumb things.” All health and physical education teacher education faculty members should make efforts to learn about these tools to facilitate informed, solution-focused decisions about whether and where to leverage them. We highlight the importance of maintaining sociocritical perspectives when considering use of digital technologies to understand and address digital (in)equity and promote equitable practices. We conclude by emphasizing the need for field-specific consensus statements to guide ethical and appropriate use of Artificial Intelligence-powered chatbots, to ensure the value of these tools is harnessed for the good of the society. [Output by ChatGPT-3]

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University and Community Partnerships to Implement Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Insights and Impacts for Kinesiology Departments

Timothy A. Brusseau, Sean M. Bulger, Eloise Elliott, James C. Hannon, and Emily Jones

This paper discusses lessons learned from the process of conducting community-based research with a focus on issues and topics of potential importance to leaders of departments of kinesiology. This paper is written from the perspective of physical education teacher education faculty implementing comprehensive school physical activity programming. Specifically, the paper focuses on the intersection of physical education and public health, the reconceptualization of training physical education teachers, related opportunities for community-engaged learning, and the process of relationship building in schools and communities. It is the authors’ intent that this paper will stimulate discussions relative to these topics among leaders of and faculty within kinesiology departments.

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Physical Activity, Mental and Personal Well-Being, Social Isolation, and Perceptions of Academic Attainment and Employability in University Students: The Scottish and British Active Students Surveys

Emily Budzynski-Seymour, Rebecca Conway, Matthew Wade, Alex Lucas, Michelle Jones, Steve Mann, and James Steele

Background: Physical activity (PA) promotes health and well-being. For students, university represents a transitional period, including increased independence over lifestyle behaviors, in addition to new stressors and barriers to engaging in PA. It is, therefore, important to monitor PA trends in students to gain a greater understanding about the role it might play in physical and mental well-being, as well as other factors, such as attainment and employability. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2016 in Scottish universities and colleges, and in 2017 in universities and colleges across the United Kingdom, and the data were pooled for the present study (N = 11,650). Cumulative ordinal logistic regression was used to model the association between PA levels and mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability. Results: Only 51% of the respondents met the recommended levels of moderate to vigorous PA per week. There was a linear relationship between PA levels and all outcomes, with better scores in more active students. Conclusions: UK university students are insufficiently active compared with the general population of 16- to 24-year olds. Yet, students with higher PA report better outcomes for mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability.

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2,000 Steps/Day Does Not Fully Protect Skeletal Muscle Health in Older Adults During Bed Rest

Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry, and Douglas Paddon-Jones

Physical activity in an inpatient setting is often limited to brief periods of walking. For healthy adults, public health agencies recommend a minimum of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity exercise. The authors sought to determine if meeting this activity threshold, in the absence of incidental activities of daily living, could protect skeletal muscle health during bed rest. Healthy older adults (68 ± 2 years) were randomized to 7-day bed rest with (STEP, n = 7) or without (CON, n = 10) a 2,000 steps/day intervention. Performing 2018 ± 4 steps/day did not prevent the loss of lean leg mass and had no beneficial effect on aerobic capacity, strength, or muscle fiber volume. However, the insulin response to an oral glucose challenge was preserved. Performing a block of 2,000 steps/day, in the absence of incidental activities of daily living, was insufficient to fully counter the catabolic effects of bed rest in healthy older adults.

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Chapter 3 Feasibility Study of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Appalachian Communities: The McDowell CHOICES Project

Emily M. Jones, Andrea R. Taliaferro, Eloise M. Elliott, Sean M. Bulger, Alfgeir L. Kristjansson, William Neal, and Ishonté Allar

Increasing rates of childhood obesity has prompted calls for comprehensive approaches to school-based physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) development and related contextual issues within a rural Appalachian county using a Systems Approach. A multicomponent needs assessment was conducted, including 11 school site visits with interviews with school personnel, physical space audits, and self-reported professional development, curricular, and equipment/resource needs. Data were summarized into case narratives describing context, space/facilities, and school assets/needs. Member checks verified the accuracy of narratives and inductive cross-case analysis was used to explore emergent themes. Six themes emerged: Leadership/Capacity Building, PA Access and Opportunities, Physical Education/PA Equipment and Resources, Physical Fitness Data Management and Reporting, Equity and Access to Safe and Usable Play Spaces, and Community Connections. Results support the feasibility of CSPAPs in rural communities and provide insight to factors influencing CSPAP. This study provides a framework for schools considering the development of CSPAP.

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Chapter 8: Collective Action for Learning, Improvement, and Redesign

Hal A. Lawson, Emily Jones, Zac Beddoes, Steven Estes, Stephanie A. Morris, Murray F. Mitchell, Hans van der Mars, and Phillip Ward

The pandemic, imperatives for human and civil rights, growing economic challenges, new accountability requirements, and distance-delivered learning technologies are reminders of novel 21st-century needs, problems, challenges, and opportunities. All demand a sense of urgency. Building on selected traditions and achievements, today’s futuristic planning offers timely opportunities to make history. Founded on the idea of a physical education system—with roles and responsibilities for every stakeholder (e.g., teacher, teacher educator)—this new agenda transcends what individuals can accomplish. It requires collective action. Collective action necessitates special formations, such as professional learning communities; social networks; and partnerships among schools, communities, universities, and professional associations, both state and national. In turn, these formations require organizers and facilitators. Examples illustrate collective action’s potential, also indicating why it must be a shared priority for professional education, professional development, and professional associations.