Background: The progressive dysfunction of the immune system during aging appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of several age-related disorders. However, regular physical exercise can present “antiaging” effects on several physiological systems. Methods: A narrative review of studies investigating the chronic effects of exercise and physical activity on the immune system and its association with age-related chronic diseases was carried out according to the guidelines for writing a narrative review. Results: There is compelling evidence suggesting that age-related immune system alterations play a key role on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, hypertension, chronic heart failure, type 2 diabetes, obesity, arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On the other hand, the regular practice of physical activity appears to improve most of the inflammatory/immunological processes involved in these diseases. Conclusion: Epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies permit us to affirm that regular physical activity improves immunomodulation and may play a key role in the prevention and treatment of several age-related chronic diseases. However, further studies are needed to better describe the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of physical exercise in specific organs of older individuals, as well as the mechanisms involved in such response.
Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva and Rodolfo Paula Vieira
Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Danilo Yuzo Nishimoto, Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac and Henrique Luiz Monteiro
Patients on hemodialysis (HD) report lower physical activity (PA) levels. We analyzed factors associated with low levels of PA in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and compared PA on HD day and non-HD.
79 patients wore an accelerometer and were classified according to time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Demographic data, BMI, comorbidities, clinical status, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were checked for association with PA. In addition, PA level was compared between days of HD and non-HD.
Accelerometer compliance was 78.5% [33 men and 29 women (53.96 ± 15.71 yrs) were included in analysis]. 35.5% of sample achieved ≥150min/week on MVPA. Lower MVPA was associated with older age (OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 1.11 to 30.19, P = .04), and lower score of physical function HRQoL (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.23 to 15.23, P = .02). In addition, patients spent 9.73% more time on sedentary behavior, 38.9% less on light PA and 74.9% less on MVPA on HD day versus non-HD day.
Age and physical function HRQoL were the main factors associated to lower PA levels. In addition, lower time spent on PA during HD day suggest that strategies for increasing physical activity levels during HD day such exercising during HD session could help CKD patients to reach current PA recommendations.
Carolina Menezes Fiorelli, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, Lucas Simieli, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Bianca Fernandes, Gustavo Christofoletti and Fabio Augusto Barbieri
Background: People with Parkinson’s disease (PD) present cognitive impairments, which deteriorate their quality of life and increase disability. Acute aerobic exercise has demonstrated favorable effects on cognitive function in healthy neurologically individuals, but these effects have a dose–response relationship. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus continuous moderate-intensity training (MICT) on cognitive functions in people with PD. Methods: A total of 14 individuals with PD performed cognitive tests, before and after 3 sessions—control session (CON), HIIT, and MICT. HIIT and MICT were performed on a stationary bicycle. HIIT consisted of a 25-minute exercise of high-intensity intervals (1 min) alternated with moderate-intensity intervals (2 min). MICT consisted of a 30-minute moderate-intensity exercise. CON was 30 minutes of seated resting. The cognitive parameters were compared by a mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. Results: Acute effects of exercise were according to its type: MICT—improved immediate auditory memory (P < .01); HIIT—improved immediate auditory memory (P < .02), attention (P < .001), and sustained attention (P < .01); and CON—no effects on cognitive function. Conclusions: Acute aerobic exercise was able to promote better cognitive performance in people with PD. The effects on cognition were exercise intensity dependent.
Bianca Fernandes, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Fernanda Zane Arthuso, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Gabriel Felipe Moretto, Luis Felipe Itikawa Imaizumi, Awassi Yophiwa Ngomane, Guilherme Veiga Guimarães and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac
Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MICE) on hemodynamic and functional variables in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: Twenty participants (13 men) were randomly assigned to a thrice-weekly HIIT (n = 12) or MICE (n = 8) for 12 weeks. Hemodynamic (resting heart rate and blood pressure, carotid femoral pulse wave velocity, endothelial reactivity, and heart rate variability) and functional variables (5-time sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and 6-min walking tests) assessed before and after training. Results: Demographic, hemodynamic and functional variables were similar between groups at baseline. Endothelial reactivity tended to increase after HIIT, but not after MICE, resulting in improved level (∼8%, P < .01) of this variable in HIIT versus MICE during follow-up. Six-minute walking test improved after HIIT (10.4 ± 3.8%, P < .05), but did not change after MICE. Sit to stand improved similarly after HIIT (27.2 ± 6.1%, P < .05) and MICE (21.5 ± 5.4%, P < .05). No significant changes were found after HIIT or MICE in any other variable assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise intensity may influence training-induced adaptation on endothelial reactivity and aerobic capacity in individuals with Parkinson’s disease.
José Messias Rodrigues da Silva, Marcia Uchoa de Rezende, Tânia Carvalho Spada, Lucila da Silva Francisco, Helenilson Pereira dos Santos, Robson de Andrade Souza, Júlia Maria D'Andréa Greve and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the role of physical activity (PA) in muscular and functional capacity in subjects under treatment for knee osteoarthritis submitted to an interdisciplinary educational program emphasizing the regular practice of PA and exercises. Methods: Subjects under treatment for primary knee osteoarthritis (N = 136; age = 66 ) were allocated in sedentary to sedentary (SED−SED, sedentary or insufficiently active at pre and post), active to sedentary (ACT−SED, active or very active at pre and sedentary or insufficiently active at post), sedentary to active (SED−ACT, sedentary or insufficiently active at pre and active or very active at post), and active to active (ACT−ACT, active or very active at pre and post) groups. Muscular capacity (isokinetic test), functional capacity (timed up and down stairs test, timed up and go test, and 5 times sit to stand test), and daily living PA (International PA Questionnaire short version) were assessed before and after (12 mo) the follow-up. Results: There were improvements in performance (P < .05) in the time to up and down stairs: 37% in SED–ACT and 27.5% in ACT–ACT; timed up and go test: 33.5% in SED–ACT, 19% in ACT−SED, and 40% in ACT–ACT; 5 times sit to stand test: 39% in SED–ACT and 51% in ACT–ACT groups after 12 months of follow-up. Conclusions: The present results suggest that high levels of daily living PA may have an important role in the prevention/management of knee osteoarthritis.