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Eric E. Wickel

Background:

This study examined associations between sedentary time, physical activity (PA), and executive function among youth participating in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

Methods:

Sedentary time and PA (light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)) were objectively assessed at 9 and 15 years, while executive function (inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were assessed at 15 years. Regression models were used to examine associations.

Results:

Sedentary time at 9 years predicted fluid intelligence at 15 years (B = 0.031), whereas increased sedentary time from 9 to 15 years predicted higher inhibition (B = 0.003), working memory (B = 0.074), and fluid intelligence (B = 0.029). Relatively lower levels of working memory at 15 years were predicted from increased levels of light PA, moderate PA, and MVPA from 9 to 15 years (B = –0.075, –0.293, and –0.173, respectively). At 15 years, inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence were significantly associated with sedentary time (B = 0.003, 0.055, and 0.045, respectively).

Conclusions:

Childhood sedentary time and PA may affect executive function at 15 years; however, prospective studies are needed to examine the concurrent change in both sedentary time and PA with executive function.

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Joey C. Eisenmann and Eric E. Wickel

The purpose of this study was to examine the estimated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity patterns of adolescent distance runners. Twenty-eight (20 male, 8 female) adolescent distance runners self-reported their daily physical activity with the Bouchard 3-d diary. Mean values for TEE, 57.4 ± 11.6 and 51.0 ± 9.8 kcal·kg−1·d−1, and activity energy expenditure (AEE), 26.7 ± 10.4 and 21.0 ± 8.8 kcal·kg−1·d−1, when expressed per kilogram body mass were not significantly different between males and females, respectively (P = 0.18). When expressed in absolute terms, TEE, 3609 ± 927 and 2467 ± 426 kcal/d, and AEE, 1688 ± 746 and 977 ± 269 kcal/d, were significantly higher in males than in females, respectively. The results document the energy expenditure and self-reported physical activity of adolescent distance runners and might be used to address recommendations for adequate dietary energy requirements in this group, which in turn is important for energy balance in the context of normal growth, health, and physical performance.

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Eric E. Wickel, Johann Issartel and Sarahjane Belton

Background:

Relatively little is known regarding after-school behavior. This study examined after-school active and sedentary behaviors among youth participating in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

Methods:

An interview guided time-use approach was used to obtain detailed longitudinal information about after-school (3−6 PM) behavior of a mixed gender cohort (n = 886) at ages 9 and 11 yrs. Responses obtained in 15-min intervals were coded into 29 exclusive behaviors and separated into 3 main categories [moderate-and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity, and sedentary]. Sedentary category was further divided into screen and nonscreen categories. A mixed ANOVA design was used to examine gender and age-related differences in MVPA, light-intensity physical activity, sedentary, screen, and nonscreen.

Results:

MVPA was higher among boys compared with girls (P < .001) and decreased from 9 to 11 yrs (P < .001). Overall, total sedentary time was comparable between boys and girls despite a difference in reported screen time (boys > girls; P < .001) and nonscreen time (boys < girls; P < .001). Total sedentary time increased from 9 to 11 yrs (P < .001).

Conclusion:

Engagement in after-school behavior appears to change during preadolescence. Additional research is needed to understand factors associated with the selection of active and sedentary behavior over time.

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Joey C. Eisenmann and Eric E. Wickel

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Eric E. Wickel and Joey C. Eisenmann

The age-related decline in physical activity during adolescence is well documented; however, little is known about differences in physical activity among early, average, and late maturing adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maturity status and physical activity among 167 adolescents who were 13–14 years old. The maturity offset was derived and biological maturity groups were created. Habitual physical activity was determined with a pedometer over a 7-day period. No significant maturity-group differences were found for physical activity. The results of this study did not demonstrate significant differences in physical activity as determined by a pedometer among early, average, and late maturing 13- to 14-year-olds.

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Sarahjane Belton, Wesley O’Brien, Eric E. Wickel and Johann Issartel

Background:

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of noncompliance in an adolescent field based accelerometer study. A further purpose was to investigate the effect of a cost efficient strategy (SMS reminder message) on the compliance of adolescents

Method:

The research carried out in 2010 involved 117 second level students (12.41 ± .53 yrs) from 4 schools in a rural Irish town. The Actigraph accelerometer data were processed over 7 days to determine compliance level.

Results:

Students were more likely to remove their monitor in the evening period than at any other time, however if students removed their monitor after school it remained unworn for a significantly longer duration than in any other time period. Students who received a SMS message were significantly more likely (P = .008) to wear their monitor in the morning than those that did not.

Conclusions:

Sending an SMS message each morning is effective for improving the number of students wearing monitors to school. The after school period is a critical period for nonwear time and should be targeted in future studies wishing to improve compliance.

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Eric E. Wickel, Joey C. Eisenmann and Gregory J. Welk

Background:

This study compared physical activity levels among early, average, and late maturing boys and girls.

Methods:

Physical activity was assessed with an Actigraph accelerometer in 161 (76 boys, 85 girls) 9 to 14 year olds over 7 consecutive days. Anthropometric variables were measured and the maturity offset (ie, years from peak height velocity) was predicted. Biological maturity groups (early, average, and late) were created based on the mean estimated age at peak height velocity for boys and girls separately.

Results:

Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were similar between early, average, and late maturing boys and girls after adjusting for differences in chronological age. Levels of MVPA progressively declined across chronological age in boys and girls (P < .001) and gender differences existed at 10-, 12-, and 13-years, with boys having higher levels than girls (P < .05). When aligned according to biological age, gender-related differences in MVPA did not exist.

Conclusions:

Within this sample of 9 to 14 year old boys and girls, there were no significant differences in MVPA among early, average, and late maturing individuals.