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Susan A. Norkus, Erik E. Swartz and R.T. Floyd

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Erik E. Swartz

Column-editor : Michael G. Dolan

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W. Steven Tucker, Charles W. Armstrong, Erik E. Swartz, Brian M. Campbell and James M. Rankin


Closed kinetic chain exercises are reported to provide a more functional rehabilitation outcome.


To determine the amount of muscle activity in 4 shoulder muscles during exercise on the Cuff Link.


Repeated measures.




10 men and 10 women, age 18–50.


Subjects performed 3 sets of 5 revolutions on the Cuff Link in non-weight-bearing, partial-weight-bearing, and full-weight-bearing positions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Electromyography data were collected from the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major and were expressed as percentage of maximal isometric contractions.


Significant differences were found across the weight-bearing conditions for all 4 muscles. Exercise on the Cuff Link required minimal to significant amounts of muscle recruitment.


Muscle recruitment increases as weight bearing increases during use of the Cuff Link, suggesting an increase in dynamic stabilization of the glenohumeral joint.

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Cynthia J. Wright, Nico G. Silva, Erik E. Swartz and Brent L. Arnold

Facemask removal is an emergency skill to gain airway access in football athletes with potential cervical injury. While facemask removal performance has been reported in experienced athletic trainers, initial skill acquisition is undocumented. Therefore, the purpose was to document skill development in novice athletic training students. After instruction, student performance was documented during six consecutive facemask removal trials. From first to last trials, there were significant improvements in time, confidence, and rating of perceived exertion. Induced head motion did not improve. While overall skill performance began to approximate previously reported norms, improvements in success rate, consistency, and motion are needed.