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  • Author: Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro x
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Benjamin Reyes Fernández, Esteban Montenegro Montenegro, Nina Knoll and Ralf Schwarzer

Background:

Self-efficacy, action control, and social support are considered to influence changes in physical activity levels in older adults. This study examines the relationship among these variables and explores the putative mediating and moderating mechanisms that might account for activity changes.

Methods:

A longitudinal study with 54 older adults (≥ 50 years of age) was carried out in Costa Rica. In a moderated mediation analysis, action control was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and physical activity, whereas social support was specified as a moderator between self-efficacy and action control. Baseline physical activity, age, and sex were specified as covariates.

Results:

Action control mediated between self-efficacy and physical activity. An interaction between social support and self-efficacy on action control pointed to a synergistic effect at the first stage of the mediating process.

Conclusions:

The effect of self-efficacy on physical activity was partly explained by action control, providing evidence of action control as a proximal mediator of physical activity. Moreover, the moderator role of social support was confirmed: high social support appeared to compensate for low levels of self-efficacy.

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Lauren T. Ptomey, Eric D. Vidoni, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Michael A. Thompson, Joseph R. Sherman, Anna M. Gorczyca, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

Adults with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their caregivers represent a segment of the population with low levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and limited options for increasing MPA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a group video conference approach for increasing MPA in adults with AD and their caregivers. Adults with AD and their caregivers attended 30-min group exercise sessions three times per week for 12 weeks. Exercise sessions and support sessions were delivered in their homes on a tablet computer over video conferencing software. Nine adults with AD/caregiver dyads enrolled, and seven completed the 12-week intervention. Adults with AD attended 77.3% of the group exercise sessions, and caregivers attended 79.2% of group exercise sessions. Weekly MPA increased in both adults with AD (49%) and caregivers (30%). Exercise delivered by group video conferencing is a feasible and potentially effective approach for increasing MPA in adults with AD and their caregivers.