Context: Hamstring inflexibility is typically treated using therapeutic massage, stretching, and soft tissue mobilization. An alternative intervention is deep oscillation therapy (DOT). Currently, there is a lack of evidence to support DOT’s effectiveness to improve flexibility. Objective: To explore the effectiveness of DOT to improve hamstring flexibility. Design: Randomized single-cohort design. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Twenty-nine healthy, physically active individuals (self-reported activity of a minimum 200 min/wk). Interventions: All participants received a single session of DOT with randomization of the participant’s leg for the intervention. The DOT intervention parameters included a 1∶1 mode and 70% to 80% dosage at various frequencies for 28 minutes. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive straight leg raise for hip flexion using a digital inclinometer. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated using the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and the Global Rating of Change (GRoC). Main Outcome Measure: The independent variable was time (pre and post). The dependent variables included passive straight leg raise, the GRoC, and the participant’s perceptions of the intervention. Statistical analyses included a dependent t test and a Pearson correlation. Results: Participants reported no issues with sport, activities of daily living, or quality of life prior to beginning the intervention study on the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score. Passive straight leg raise significantly improved post-DOT (95% confidence interval, 4.48°–7.85°, P < .001) with a mean difference of 6.17 ± 4.42° (pre-DOT = 75.43 ± 21.82° and post-DOT = 81.60 ± 23.17°). A significant moderate positive correlation was identified (r = .439, P = .02) among all participants between the GRoC and the mean change score of hamstring flexibility. Participants believed that the intervention improved their hamstring flexibility (5.41 ± 1.02 points) and was relaxing (6.21 ± 0.86). Conclusions: DOT is an effective intervention to increase hamstring flexibility.
Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games
Ethan E. Hull, Jeannette M. Garcia, Angela M. Kolen and Robert J. Robertson
New parents have to adjust to less sleep, less free time, and more responsibility as a result of having a child. The purpose of this study was to examine how having a child impacts the physical activity (PA) beliefs and behaviors of new parents over a 2- to 3-year time period.
Participants included 49 men and women (31% men, 96% white) who did not have a child at baseline (26.3 ± 1.1 years old) but did have a child at the time of follow-up (28.9 ± 1.7 years old). The child’s mean age at follow-up was 12 ± 7 months old. PA was measured via questionnaire at baseline and again at follow-up. Interviews regarding PA occurred at follow-up.
PA significantly decreased in parents across the time period (P < .001), and parents attributed this decrease to having a child and being pregnant. Parents mentioned they lack time, energy, and motivation for PA as a result of caring for a new child. Parents who maintained their activity level stated they prioritized PA and chose activities they enjoyed.
These results show that although activity levels decrease in individuals who have a child, PA in new parents may be a function of priority, intensity, and enjoyment.
Ethan Edward Hull, Dana L. Rofey, Robert J. Robertson, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Amy D. Otto and Deborah J. Aaron
Physical activity (PA) tends to decrease from adolescence to young adulthood, and factors that have been proposed to contribute to this decrease are life transitions. The focus of this study is to examine life transitions, such as marriage and parenthood, and the impact they may have on the physical activity levels of young adults.
This 2-year prospective analysis assessed physical activity (hrs/wk) and sociodemo-graphics in young adults (n = 638, 48% male, 15% nonwhite, 24 ± 1.1 years old) via questionnaire. PA data were normalized through log transformations and examined using ANCOVAs, controlling for appropriate covariates.
ANCOVA results showed that becoming married did not significantly change PA compared with individuals who stayed single [F(1,338) = 0.38, P = .54, d = 0.06]. Conversely, PA was significantly lower [F(1,517) = 6.7, P = .01, d = 0.41] after having a child, compared with individuals who stayed childless.
These results suggest that marriage does not impact PA in young adults, but having a child significantly decreases PA in parents, and may offer an optimal period of intervention.