An Urgent Need for Quantitative Intersectionality in Physical Activity and Health Research
Eun-Young Lee, Lee Airton, Heejun Lim, and Eun Jung
Unmasking the Political Power of Physical Activity Research: Harnessing the “Apolitical-Ness” as a Catalyst for Addressing the Challenges of Our Time
Eun-Young Lee and Mark S. Tremblay
The Relationship Between Physical Activity Level of Parents and That of Their Adolescent Children
Hyo Jung Yoon, Sang Ah Lee, Young Jun Ju, Jin Young Nam, and Eun-Cheol Park
Background: Intergenerational transmission, which refers to the similarity between parent and their children, is a possible explanation of adolescent physical activity (PA). However, only a few existing studies explore the relationship of parent–adolescent PA in East Asian countries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of parent–adolescent PA using a nationally representative data in Korea with a large sample size. Methods: Data were collected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2010 to 2014. The authors performed a linear mixed effects regression analysis with 1342 cases after using log conversion of parent and adolescent moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Results: In the study, the median MVPA of adolescents was 150 (interquartile range: 360) minutes per week. Adolescent MVPA levels were significantly correlated with their mother’s MVPA (β = 0.055, P = .02). Similar findings of greater association in girls and younger adolescents (age: 13–15 y) were found in subgroup analysis (girls: β = 0.073, P = .05; younger adolescents: β = 0.103, P = .001). Conclusion: Increasing maternal PA levels could stimulate their adolescent’s PA levels. Therefore, intervention at the family level may lead to an increase in adolescent PA levels.
Effects of Acute Active Video Games on Endothelial Function Following a High-Fat Meal in Overweight Adolescents
Soo Hyun Park, Eun Sun Yoon, Yong Hee Lee, Chul-Ho Kim, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Kevin S. Heffernan, Bo Fernhall, and Sae Young Jae
We tested the hypothesis that an active video game following a high-fat meal would partially prevent the unfavorable effect of a high-fat meal on vascular function in overweight adolescents.
Twenty-four overweight adolescents were randomized to either a 60-minute active video game (AVG) group (n = 12) or seated rest (SR) as a control group (n = 12) after a high-fat meal. Blood parameters were measured, and vascular function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 3 hours after a high-fat meal.
No significant interaction was found in any blood parameter. A high-fat meal significantly increased blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations in both groups in a similar manner. Brachial artery FMD significantly decreased in the SR group (13.8 ± 3.2% to 11.8 ± 2.5), but increased in the AVG group (11.4 ± 4.0% to 13.3 ± 3.5), with a significant interaction (P = .034).
These findings show that an active video game attenuated high-fat meal-induced endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that an active video game may have a cardioprotective effect on endothelial function in overweight adolescents when exposed to a high-fat meal.
Results From South Korean 2022 Para Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities
Jeongmin Lee, Kitaek Oh, Jihee Min, Seon-Young Goo, Eun-Young Lee, Kyoung June Yi, Jinmoo Heo, Joon-Sung Lee, Dong-il Kim, Wonsang Shin, Kwon-il Kim, Yeonsoo Kim, and Justin Y. Jeon
South Korea has developed its first Para Report Card on physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents with disabilities. Five national surveillance databases were used to evaluate PA indicators based on the benchmarks and grading rubric provided by Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. Report card evaluation committees were invited to grade and assess the results using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis. Five indicators (overall PA, D+; organized sports and PA, D−; active transportation, D−; physical fitness, D+; and government, A+) and one additional indicator (sleep, C−) were assigned a letter grade. The other five indicators were graded as incomplete. The Para Report Card revealed a significant gap between the behavioral-indicator grades (D− to D+) and the policy-indicator grade (A+), suggesting that government strategies and investment have not yet been translated into behavioral PA among children and adolescents with disabilities.
Economic Freedom, Climate Culpability, and Physical Activity Indicators Among Children and Adolescents: Report Card Grades From the Global Matrix 4.0
Eun-Young Lee, Patrick Abi Nader, Salomé Aubert, Silvia A. González, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Wendy Y. Huang, Taru Manyanga, Shawnda Morrison, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, and Mark S. Tremblay
Background: Macrolevel factors such as economic and climate factors can be associated with physical activity indicators. This study explored patterns and relationships between economic freedom, climate culpability, and Report Card grades on physical activity-related indicators among 57 countries/jurisdictions participating in the Global Matrix 4.0. Methods: Participating countries/jurisdictions provided Report Card grades on 10 common indicators. Information on economic freedom and climatic factors were gathered from public data sources. Correlations between the key variables were provided by income groups (ie, low- and middle-income countries/jurisdictions and high-income countries/jurisdictions [HIC]). Results: HIC were more economically neoliberal and more responsible for climate change than low- and middle-income countries. Annual temperature and precipitation were negatively correlated with behavioral/individual indicators in low- and middle-income countries but not in HIC. In HIC, correlations between climate culpability and behavioral/individual and economic indicators were more apparent. Overall, poorer grades were observed in highly culpable countries/jurisdictions in the highly free group, while in less/moderately free groups, less culpable countries/jurisdictions showed poorer grades than their counterparts in their respective group by economic freedom. Conclusions: Global-level physical activity promotion strategies should closely evaluate different areas that need interventions tailored by income groups, with careful considerations for inequities in the global political economy and climate change.
Association Between Physical Activity Indicators and Human Development Index at a National Level: Information From Global Matrix 4.0 Physical Activity Report Cards for Children and Adolescents
Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Salomé Aubert, Kwok Ng, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jonathan Y. Cagas, Riki Tesler, Dawn Tladi, Taru Manyanga, Silvia A. González, Eun-Young Lee, and Mark S. Tremblay
Background: The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the 10 key indicators of the Global Matrix 4.0 project and human development index (HDI) at a national level according to sex, age, area of residence, and ability levels. Methods: Information from the 57 countries/localities included in the Global Matrix 4.0 project was compiled and presented according to the HDI of each country/locality for each of the 10 key indicators. Grades were assigned based on the benchmarks of the Global Matrix 4.0 project ranged between “A+” (best performance) and “F” (worst performance). Results: The population subgroups of females, children, rural residents, with/without disabilities from countries/localities with higher HDI performed better in the organized sport and physical activity indicator than their peers from countries/localities with lower HDI. Children and adolescents living in rural areas of countries/localities with higher HDI showed better performance for active play, and children and adolescents living in urban areas of countries/localities with lower HDI showed better performance for the active transportation. Countries/localities with higher HDI showed better grades for sources of influence than the countries/localities with lower HDI. Conclusions: Physical activity patterns in some population subgroups of children and adolescents differed according to the development level of countries/localities.
Assessing Support for Policy Actions With Co-Benefits for Climate Change and Physical Activity in Canada
Matthew J. Fagan, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Ananya Banerjee, Leah J. Ferguson, Eun-Young Lee, Norman O’Reilly, Ryan E. Rhodes, John C. Spence, Mark S. Tremblay, and Guy Faulkner
Background: Calls to action addressing the interconnections between physical (in)activity and the climate crisis are increasing. The current study aimed to investigate public support for policy actions that potentially have co-benefits for physical activity promotion and climate change mitigation. Methods: In 2023, a survey through the Angus Reid Forum was completed by 2507 adults living in Canada. Binary logistic regressions were conducted. Separate models were created to reflect support or opposition to the 8 included policy items. Several covariates were included in the models including age, gender, political orientation, physical activity levels, income, urbanicity climate anxiety, and attitudes surrounding physical activity and climate change. The data were weighted to reflect the gender, age, and regional composition of the country. Results: Most individuals living in Canada strongly or moderately supported all actions (ranging from 71% to 85%). Meeting the physical activity guidelines, higher self-reported income, and scoring high on personal experience of climate change were associated with higher odds of supporting the policy actions related to climate actions. Conclusions: Most adults living in Canada support policies that align with the recommended policy actions related to physical activity and climate change. National campaigns enhancing awareness and understanding of the bidirectional relationship between physical activity and climate change are warranted, and these should consider the consistent demographic differences (eg, gender, age, and political orientation) seen in public support for physical activity-related policies.
Results From South Korea’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth
Yoonkyung Song, Hyuk In Yang, Eun-Young Lee, Mi-Seong Yu, Min Jae Kang, Hyun Joo Kang, Wook Song, YeonSoo Kim, Hyon Park, Han Joo Lee, Sang-hoon Suh, John C. Spence, and Justin Y. Jeon
South Korea’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of physical activity according to the indicators set by Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance.
National surveys were used as preferred sources of data. This was then supported by peer-reviewed papers and government reports identified by a systematic search of the literature written in English or Korean. A Research Working Group then graded indicators based on the collected evidence.
Each indicator was graded as follows: Overall Physical Activity, D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, C-; Active Transport, C+; Sedentary Behavior, F; School, D; Government and Investment, C; Active Play, Physical Literacy, Family and Peers, and Community and Built Environment were graded INC (incomplete) due to lack of available evidence.
Though the final grades of key indicators for South Korean children and youth are not satisfactory, increasing interests and investments have been demonstrated at a national level. More evidence is required for comprehensive assessment on all indicators to better inform policy and practice. This should be accompanied by the use of consistent criteria to contribute to global efforts for active healthy kids.